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      Enigmatic Sebacinales

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          Genome expansion and gene loss in powdery mildew fungi reveal tradeoffs in extreme parasitism.

          Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews pathogenic on dicotyledonous plants. These genomes display massive retrotransposon proliferation, genome-size expansion, and gene losses. The missing genes encode enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, probably reflecting their redundancy in an exclusively biotrophic life-style. Among the 248 candidate effectors of pathogenesis identified in the Blumeria genome, very few (less than 10) define a core set conserved in all three mildews, suggesting that most effectors represent species-specific adaptations.
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            Hidden fungi, emergent properties: endophytes and microbiomes.

            Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. They are important components of plant microbiomes. Endophytes interact with, and overlap in function with, other core microbial groups that colonize plant tissues, e.g., mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens, epiphytes, and saprotrophs. Some fungal endophytes affect plant growth and plant responses to pathogens, herbivores, and environmental change; others produce useful or interesting secondary metabolites. Here, we focus on new techniques and approaches that can provide an integrative understanding of the role of fungal endophytes in the plant microbiome. Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses are not considered because they have unique properties distinct from other endophytes. Hidden from view and often overlooked, endophytes are emerging as their diversity, importance for plant growth and survival, and interactions with other organisms are revealed. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
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              Exploration types of ectomycorrhizae

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mycological Progress
                Mycol Progress
                Springer Nature
                1617-416X
                1861-8952
                February 2013
                January 2013
                : 12
                : 1
                : 1-27
                Article
                10.1007/s11557-012-0880-4
                34264bf4-a073-4bdb-952e-f843cf29a231
                © 2013
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11557-012-0880-4

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