Dai Shimizu 1 , Mitsuro Kanda a , 1 , Haruyoshi Tanaka 1 , Daisuke Kobayashi 1 , Chie Tanaka 1 , Masamichi Hayashi 1 , Naoki Iwata 1 , Yukiko Niwa 1 , Hideki Takami 1 , Suguru Yamada 1 , Tsutomu Fujii 1 , Goro Nakayama 1 , Michitaka Fujiwara 1 , Yasuhiro Kodera 1
06 February 2017
The prognosis of patients with gastric cancer (GC) with hematogenous metastasis is dismal. Identification of biomarkers specific for hematogenous metastasis is required to develop personalized treatments that improve patients’ outcomes. Global expression profiling of GC tissues with synchronous hepatic metastasis without metastasis to the peritoneal cavity or distant lymph nodes was conducted using next-generation sequencing and identified the G protein-coupled receptor 155 ( GPR155) as a candidate biomarker. GPR155 transcription was suppressed in GC cell lines compared with a nontumorigenic cell line. DNA methylation of the GPR155 promoter region was not detected, albeit 20% of GC cell lines harbored copy number loss at GPR155 locus. The expression levels of GPR155 mRNA correlated inversely with those of TWIST1 and WNT5B. Inhibition of GPR155 expression increased the levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-STAT1, significantly increased cell proliferation, and increased the invasiveness of a GC cell lines. GPR155 mRNA levels in GC clinical samples correlated with hematogenous metastasis and recurrence. Multivariate analysis revealed that reduced expression of GPR155 mRNA was an independent predictive marker of hematogenous metastasis. GPR155 may represent a biomarker for diagnosing and predicting hematogenous metastasis of GC.