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      Molecular regulation of the renin–angiotensin system in haemodialysis patients

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          Abstract

          Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exerts beneficial effects in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease, yet evidence suggesting a similar benefit in haemodialysis (HD) patients is not available. Furthermore, knowledge of the effects of RAS blockade on systemic RAS components in HD patients is limited. Analysis of the quantity and dynamics of all known peripheral constituents of the RAS may yield important pathomechanistic information of a widespread therapeutic measure in HD patients.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas: new players of the renin-angiotensin system.

          Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is now recognized as a biologically active component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang-(1-7) appears to play a central role in the RAS because it exerts a vast array of actions, many of them opposite to those attributed to the main effector peptide of the RAS, Ang II. The discovery of the Ang-converting enzyme (ACE) homolog ACE2 brought to light an important metabolic pathway responsible for Ang-(1-7) synthesis. This enzyme can form Ang-(1-7) from Ang II or less efficiently through hydrolysis of Ang I to Ang-(1-9) with subsequent Ang-(1-7) formation by ACE. In addition, it is now well established that the G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for Ang-(1-7). Thus, the axis formed by ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas appears to represent an endogenous counterregulatory pathway within the RAS, the actions of which are in opposition to the vasoconstrictor/proliferative arm of the RAS consisting of ACE, Ang II, and AT(1) receptor. In this brief review, we will discuss recent findings related to the biological role of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas arm in the cardiovascular and renal systems, as well as in metabolism. In addition, we will highlight the potential interactions of Ang-(1-7) and Mas with AT(1) and AT(2) receptors.
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            Prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients in the United States.

            Hypertension is common in chronic hemodialysis patients, yet there are limited data on the epidemiology of hypertension in these patients in the United States. We assessed the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension in a cohort of 2535 clinically stable, adult hemodialysis patients who participated in a multicenter study of the safety and tolerability of an intravenous iron preparation. Hypertension was defined as an average predialysis systolic blood pressure >150 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure >85 mm Hg, or the use of antihypertensive medications. Hypertension was documented in 86% (n = 2173) of patients. The prevalence of hypertension, in contrast to that observed in the general population, did not increase linearly with age and was not affected by sex or ethnicity. Hypertension was controlled adequately in only 30% (n = 659) of the hypertensive patients. In the remaining patients, hypertension was either untreated (12% [252/2173]) or treated inadequately (58% [1262/2173]). Control of hypertension, particularly systolic hypertension, in chronic hemodialysis patients in the United States is inadequate, despite recognition of its prevalence and the frequent use of antihypertensive drugs. Optimizing the use of medications and closer attention to nonpharmacologic interventions, such as adjustment of dry weight, a low-sodium diet, and exercise, may improve control.
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              Biomarkers of inflammation and progression of chronic kidney disease.

              Chronic kidney disease is associated with higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Statins have anti-inflammatory properties and may attenuate loss of kidney function. Although inflammation may mediate progressive renal injury, the relation between statin use, markers of inflammation, and the rate of kidney function loss has not been elucidated. We examined the association between pravastatin use, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFrii), and the rate of kidney function loss. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from a randomized placebo controlled trial of pravastatin 40 mg daily in people with previous myocardial infarction. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) GFR equation. We studied 687 subjects with chronic kidney disease (GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) who did not experience a cardiovascular event during follow-up. Multivariate linear regression was used to study the relation between baseline CRP and sTNFrii and the rate of kidney function loss in mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year. Cross-product interaction terms were used to determine if these relations varied with pravastatin use. Median baseline GFR was 54.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (interquartile range 49.7, 57.8) and median duration of follow-up was 58 months. Higher baseline CRP level was independently associated with more rapid kidney function loss (highest tertile 0.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year faster than lowest tertile) (P= 0.001). A similar independent relation was observed between tertile of sTNFrii and rate of kidney function loss (highest tertile 0.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year faster than lowest tertile) (P= 0.006). Subjects with both CRP and sTNFrii in the highest tertile ("inflamed" status) appeared to derive more renal benefit from pravastatin than those without (P for interaction 0.047). In these 108 subjects, renal function loss in pravastatin recipients was 0.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year slower than placebo (95% CI 0 to 1.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year slower) (P= 0.039). Higher CRP and sTNFrii are independently associated with faster rates of kidney function loss in chronic kidney disease. Pravastatin appears to prevent loss of kidney function to a greater extent in individuals with greater evidence of inflammation, although this was of borderline significance. These data suggest that inflammation may mediate the loss of kidney function among subjects with chronic kidney disease and concomitant coronary disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1460-2385
                0931-0509
                January 2015
                January 2015
                January 01 2015
                August 08 2014
                : 30
                : 1
                : 115-123
                Article
                10.1093/ndt/gfu265
                25107336
                © 2014

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