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      Near-complete phylogeny of extant Crocodylia (Reptilia) using mitogenome-based data

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          Abstract

          Species of the order Crocodylia are mostly large, predatory and semi-aquatic reptiles. Crocodylia, the closest living relatives of birds, first appeared in the Late Cretaceous period. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 19 Crocodylia species, including two species (Melanosuchus niger and Caiman yacare) that have not been previously sequenced for mitogenomes, were processed through Illumina sequencing to offer genetic resources and compare with the mitogenomes of Crocodylia species reported previously. In addition, a high-resolution phylogenetic tree of nearly all current recognized species of Crocodylia is constructed based on mitogenomic data. Phylogenetic analyses support monophyly of three families: Alligatoridae (four genera: Alligator, Caiman, Melanosuchus and Paleosuchus), Crocodylidae (three genera: Crocodylus, Mecistops and Osteolaemus) and Gavialidae (two genera: Gavialis and Tomistoma). The tree topology is generally similar to previous studies. Molecular dating suggests that the first split within Crocodylia date back to the Upper Cretaceous (approx. 86.75 Mya). The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Alligatoridae is 53.33 Mya and that of Crocodylidae and Gavialidae is 50.13 Mya, which might be closely linked to climate changes during the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene. Additionally, this study proves that the diversification rate within Crocodylia began to increase from the Late Eocene (about 36 Mya) and two diversification peak periods of Crocodylia (0–10 Mya and 10–20 Mya) are disclosed, which is roughly consistent with the estimated crocodylian species richness through time. Combining all these clues, we can suggest that climate fluctuation may have played a decisive role in the speciation of Crocodylia.

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          Most cited references 77

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present.

            Since 65 million years ago (Ma), Earth's climate has undergone a significant and complex evolution, the finer details of which are now coming to light through investigations of deep-sea sediment cores. This evolution includes gradual trends of warming and cooling driven by tectonic processes on time scales of 10(5) to 10(7) years, rhythmic or periodic cycles driven by orbital processes with 10(4)- to 10(6)-year cyclicity, and rare rapid aberrant shifts and extreme climate transients with durations of 10(3) to 10(5) years. Here, recent progress in defining the evolution of global climate over the Cenozoic Era is reviewed. We focus primarily on the periodic and anomalous components of variability over the early portion of this era, as constrained by the latest generation of deep-sea isotope records. We also consider how this improved perspective has led to the recognition of previously unforeseen mechanisms for altering climate.
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              BLAST+: architecture and applications

              Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0024-4082
                1096-3642
                April 01 2021
                March 15 2021
                July 08 2020
                April 01 2021
                March 15 2021
                July 08 2020
                : 191
                : 4
                : 1075-1089
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Anhui Province Key Laboratory for Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resource, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, China
                [2 ]National Center for Gene Research, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
                [3 ]School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui, China
                Article
                10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa074
                © 2020

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