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The anticoagulants ASIS or APC do not protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury

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      Abstract

      Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of acute renal failure. The severity of injury is determined by endothelial damage as well as inflammatory and apoptotic processes. The anticoagulants active site inhibited factor VIIa (ASIS) and activated protein C (APC) are besides their anticoagulant function also known for their cytoprotective properties. In this study the effect of ASIS and APC was assessed on renal I/R injury and this in relation to inflammation and apoptosis. Our results showed no effect of ASIS or APC on renal injury as determined by histopathological scoring as well as by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. Furthermore, no effect on fibrin staining was detected but ASIS did reduce tissue factor activity levels after a 2-hr reperfusion period. Neither ASIS nor APC administration influenced overall inflammation markers, although some inflammatory effects of ASIS on interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detectable after 2 hr of reperfusion. Finally, neither APC nor ASIS had an influence on cell signaling pathways or on the number of apoptotic cells within the kidneys. From this study we can conclude that the anticoagulants ASIS and APC do not have protective effects in renal I/R injury in the experimental setup as used in this study which is in contrast to the protective effects of these anticoagulants in other models of I/R.

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      Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis.

      Drotrecogin alfa (activated), or recombinant human activated protein C, has antithrombotic, antiinflammatory, and profibrinolytic properties. In a previous study, drotrecogin alfa activated produced dose-dependent reductions in the levels of markers of coagulation and inflammation in patients with severe sepsis. In this phase 3 trial, we assessed whether treatment with drotrecogin alfa activated reduced the rate of death from any cause among patients with severe sepsis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Patients with systemic inflammation and organ failure due to acute infection were enrolled and assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of either placebo or drotrecogin alfa activated (24 microg per kilogram of body weight per hour) for a total duration of 96 hours. The prospectively defined primary end point was death from any cause and was assessed 28 days after the start of the infusion. Patients were monitored for adverse events; changes in vital signs, laboratory variables, and the results of microbiologic cultures; and the development of neutralizing antibodies against activated protein C. A total of 1690 randomized patients were treated (840 in the placebo group and 850 in the drotrecogin alfa activated group). The mortality rate was 30.8 percent in the placebo group and 24.7 percent in the drotrecogin alfa activated group. On the basis of the prospectively defined primary analysis, treatment with drotrecogin alfa activated was associated with a reduction in the relative risk of death of 19.4 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 6.6 to 30.5) and an absolute reduction in the risk of death of 6.1 percent (P=0.005). The incidence of serious bleeding was higher in the drotrecogin alfa activated group than in the placebo group (3.5 percent vs. 2.0 percent, P=0.06). Treatment with drotrecogin alfa activated significantly reduces mortality in patients with severe sepsis and may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding.
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        Acute renal failure.

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          TLR4 activation mediates kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury.

          Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) may activate innate immunity through the engagement of TLRs by endogenous ligands. TLR4 expressed within the kidney is a potential mediator of innate activation and inflammation. Using a mouse model of kidney IRI, we demonstrated a significant increase in TLR4 expression by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and infiltrating leukocytes within the kidney following ischemia. TLR4 signaling through the MyD88-dependent pathway was required for the full development of kidney IRI, as both TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice were protected against kidney dysfunction, tubular damage, neutrophil and macrophage accumulation, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In vitro, WT kidney TECs produced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and underwent apoptosis after ischemia. These effects were attenuated in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) TECs. In addition, we demonstrated upregulation of the endogenous ligands high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), hyaluronan, and biglycan, providing circumstantial evidence that one or more of these ligands may be the source of TLR4 activation. To determine the relative contribution of TLR4 expression by parenchymal cells or leukocytes to kidney damage during IRI, we generated chimeric mice. TLR4(-/-) mice engrafted with WT hematopoietic cells had significantly lower serum creatinine and less tubular damage than WT mice reconstituted with TLR4(-/-) BM, suggesting that TLR4 signaling in intrinsic kidney cells plays the dominant role in mediating kidney damage.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1]Department of Internal Medicine, Laboratory for Clinical Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            [2]Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
            [3]Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            [4]Department of General Surgery, School for Nutrition & Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            [5]Department of Pathology, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            Author notes
            [*]Corresponding author's e-mail address: henri.spronk@123456maastrichtuniversity.nl
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            Journal
            SOR-MED
            ScienceOpen Research
            ScienceOpen
            2199-1006
            12 June 2014
            : 0 (ID: 34421699-3b09-497d-bf20-61b35dfb919f)
            : 0
            : 1-10
            3754:XE
            10.14293/A2199-1006.01.SOR-MED.YXBIK.v1
            © 2014 S.T.B.G. Loubele et al.

            This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com.

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            Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 36, Pages: 10
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