Although artificial insemination ( AI) technique is an established biotechnology for bovine reproduction, the results of AI (conception rates) have a tendency to decline gradually. To our annoyance, moreover, AI‐subfertile bulls have been occasionally found in the AI centers. To resolve these serious problems, it is necessary to control the sperm quality more strictly by the examinations of sperm molecules.
We reviewed a number of recent articles regarding potentials of bovine sperm proteins as the biomarkers for bull AI‐subfertility and also showed our unpublished supplemental data on the bull AI‐subfertility associated proteins.
Bull AI‐subfertility is caused by the deficiency or dysfunctions of various molecules including regulatory proteins of ATP synthesis, acrosomal proteins, nuclear proteins, capacitation‐related proteins and seminal plasma proteins.