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      Protein biomarkers for male artificial insemination subfertility in bovine spermatozoa

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          Although artificial insemination ( AI) technique is an established biotechnology for bovine reproduction, the results of AI (conception rates) have a tendency to decline gradually. To our annoyance, moreover, AI‐subfertile bulls have been occasionally found in the AI centers. To resolve these serious problems, it is necessary to control the sperm quality more strictly by the examinations of sperm molecules.


          We reviewed a number of recent articles regarding potentials of bovine sperm proteins as the biomarkers for bull AI‐subfertility and also showed our unpublished supplemental data on the bull AI‐subfertility associated proteins.

          Main findings

          Bull AI‐subfertility is caused by the deficiency or dysfunctions of various molecules including regulatory proteins of ATP synthesis, acrosomal proteins, nuclear proteins, capacitation‐related proteins and seminal plasma proteins.


          In order to control the bovine sperm quality more strictly by the molecular examinations, it is necessary to select suitable sperm protein biomarkers for the male reproductive problems which happen in the AI centers.

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          Most cited references 103

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          Reconstitution of the mouse germ cell specification pathway in culture by pluripotent stem cells.

          The generation of properly functioning gametes in vitro requires reconstitution of the multistepped pathway of germ cell development. We demonstrate here the generation of primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) in mice with robust capacity for spermatogenesis. PGCLCs were generated from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs), a cellular state highly similar to pregastrulating epiblasts but distinct from epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). Reflecting epiblast development, EpiLC induction from ESCs/iPSCs is a progressive process, and EpiLCs highly competent for the PGC fate are a transient entity. The global transcription profiles, epigenetic reprogramming, and cellular dynamics during PGCLC induction from EpiLCs meticulously capture those associated with PGC specification from the epiblasts. Furthermore, we identify Integrin-β3 and SSEA1 as markers that allow the isolation of PGCLCs with spermatogenic capacity from tumorigenic undifferentiated cells. Our findings provide a paradigm for the first step of in vitro gametogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Soluble adenylyl cyclase as an evolutionarily conserved bicarbonate sensor.

            Spermatozoa undergo a poorly understood activation process induced by bicarbonate and mediated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). It has been assumed that bicarbonate mediates its effects through changes in intracellular pH or membrane potential; however, we demonstrate here that bicarbonate directly stimulates mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) activity in vivo and in vitro in a pH-independent manner. sAC is most similar to adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, and bicarbonate regulation of cyclase activity is conserved in these early forms of life. sAC is also expressed in other bicarbonate-responsive tissues, which suggests that bicarbonate regulation of cAMP signaling plays a fundamental role in many biological systems.
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              The immunoglobulin superfamily protein Izumo is required for sperm to fuse with eggs.

              Representing the 60 trillion cells that build a human body, a sperm and an egg meet, recognize each other, and fuse to form a new generation of life. The factors involved in this important membrane fusion event, fertilization, have been sought for a long time. Recently, CD9 on the egg membrane was found to be essential for fusion, but sperm-related fusion factors remain unknown. Here, by using a fusion-inhibiting monoclonal antibody and gene cloning, we identify a mouse sperm fusion-related antigen and show that the antigen is a novel immunoglobulin superfamily protein. We have termed the gene Izumo and produced a gene-disrupted mouse line. Izumo-/- mice were healthy but males were sterile. They produced normal-looking sperm that bound to and penetrated the zona pellucida but were incapable of fusing with eggs. Human sperm also contain Izumo and addition of the antibody against human Izumo left the sperm unable to fuse with zona-free hamster eggs.

                Author and article information

                Reprod Med Biol
                Reprod. Med. Biol
                Reproductive Medicine and Biology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                20 March 2017
                April 2017
                : 16
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1111/rmb2.2017.16.issue-2 )
                : 89-98
                [ 1 ] Division of Animal Science Department of Bioresource Science Graduate School of Agricultural Science Kobe University Kobe Japan
                [ 2 ] Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Shiga University of Medical Science Otsu Japan
                [ 3 ] Research Institute for Microbial Diseases Osaka University Suita Osaka Japan
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Hiroshi Harayama, Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.

                Email: harayama@ 123456kobe-u.ac.jp

                © 2017 The Authors. Reproductive Medicine and Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society for Reproductive Medicine.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Pages: 10, Words: 8059
                Review Article
                Review Articles
                Custom metadata
                April 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.7 mode:remove_FC converted:04.12.2017

                acrosome, artificial insemination, cattle, sperm, subfertility


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