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      A Systematic Review of Social Presence: Definition, Antecedents, and Implications

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          Social presence, or the feeling of being there with a “real” person, is a crucial component of interactions that take place in virtual reality. This paper reviews the concept, antecedents, and implications of social presence, with a focus on the literature regarding the predictors of social presence. The article begins by exploring the concept of social presence, distinguishing it from two other dimensions of presence—telepresence and self-presence. After establishing the definition of social presence, the article offers a systematic review of 233 separate findings identified from 152 studies that investigate the factors (i.e., immersive qualities, contextual differences, and individual psychological traits) that predict social presence. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of heightened social presence and when it does and does not enhance one's experience in a virtual environment.

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          Most cited references 254

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          Interpersonal Effects in Computer-Mediated Interaction: A Relational Perspective

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            Toward a More Robust Theory and Measure of Social Presence: Review and Suggested Criteria

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              Presence, Explicated


                Author and article information

                Front Robot AI
                Front Robot AI
                Front. Robot. AI
                Frontiers in Robotics and AI
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                15 October 2018
                : 5
                1Virtual Human Interaction Lab, Department of Communication, Stanford University , Stanford, CA, United States
                2College of Nursing, Department of Computer Science, Institute for Simulation & Training (Synthetic Reality Lab), University of Central Florida , Orlando, FL, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Doron Friedman, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Israel

                Reviewed by: Xueni Pan, Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom; Marco Fyfe Pietro Gillies, Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom; Regis Kopper, Duke University, United States

                *Correspondence: Catherine S. Oh syoh@ 123456stanford.edu

                This article was submitted to Virtual Environments, a section of the journal Frontiers in Robotics and AI

                Copyright © 2018 Oh, Bailenson and Welch.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 236, Pages: 35, Words: 24960
                Robotics and AI
                Systematic Review


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