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      Treatment of Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus with Hydrochlorothiazide and Amiloride in an Adult Patient

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          Aim: The effects of treatment with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride were elucidated and compared to HCTZ treatment alone and combined with acemetacin or triamterene in a Japanese adult patient with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Methods: The study was divided into seven periods: (1) HCTZ and acemetacin; (2) control period; (3) HCTZ; (4) a second control period; (5) HCTZ and amiloride; (6) a third control period, and (7) HCTZ and triamterene. Fluid intake, urine volume, urinary Na, K, creatinine, and osmolality and serum Na, K, Cl, CO<sub>2</sub>, and osmolality were measured, and free water clearance and proximal and distal tubular Na reabsorption rates were calculated. Results: Without drug administration, the urine volume was about 8,000 ml/day. The urine volume was reduced to about 6,000 ml/day with HCTZ. A further urine volume reduction to about 5,000 ml/day was obtained with the second drug administration, and the effects were similar among the three regimens. Serum and urinary osmolality and free water clearance were also similar among the three combinations, whereas the urinary potassium excretion was the least, and the serum potassium concentration was the highest with HCTZ plus amiloride. Besides, no alkalosis was observed only with this combination. Conclusion: HCTZ plus amiloride may be superior to HCTZ plus acemetacin and HCTZ plus triamterene in preventing hyperkaliuria, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis.

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          Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenlandice cores

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            Molecular identification of the gene responsible for congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

            Antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasopressin) binds to and activates V2 receptors in renal collecting tubule cells. Subsequent stimulation of the Gs/adenylyl cyclase system promotes insertion of water pores into the luminal membrane and thereby reabsorption of fluid. In congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI), an X-linked recessive disorder, the kidney fails to respond to arginine vasopressin. Here we report that an affected male of a family with CNDI has a deletion in the open reading frame of the V2 receptor gene, causing a frame shift and premature termination of translation in the third intracellular loop of the receptor protein. A normal receptor gene was found in the patient's brother. Both the normal and the mutant allele were detected in his mother. A different mutation, causing a codon change in the third transmembrane domain of the V2 receptor, was found in the open reading frame of an affected male but not in the unaffected brother belonging to another family suffering from CNDI.
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              Two novel types of contiguous gene deletion of the AVPR2 and ARHGAP4 genes in unrelated Japanese kindreds with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

              Study of two families containing individuals with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) indicated different types of 21.3 kb and 26.3 kb deletions involving the AVPR2 and ARHGAP4 (RhoGAP C1) genes. In the case of the 21.3 kb deletion, the deletion consensus motif (5'-TGAAGG-3') and polypurine runs, known as the arrest site of polymerase alpha, were detected in the vicinity of the deletion junction. Inverted repeats (7/8 matches), believed to potentiate DNA loop formation, flank the deletion breakpoint. We propose this deletion to be the result of slipped mispairing during DNA replication. In the case of the 26.3 kb deletion, the 12,945 bp inverted region with the 10,003 bp internal deletion was accompanied with the 2,509 bp deletion in the 5'-side and the 13,785 bp deletion in the 3'-side. We defined three deletion junctions in this rearrangement (DJ1, DJ2, and DJ3) from the 5'-side. The surrounding sequence of DJ1 (5'-CCC-3') closely resembled that of DJ3 (5'-AGGG-3') (DJ1; 5'-cCCCgaggg-3', DJ3; 5'-ccccAGGG-3'), and DJ1 was located in the 5'-side of DJ3 without any overlapping in sequence. The immunoglobulin class switch (ICS) motif (5'-TGGGG-3') was found around the complementary sequence of DJ3. There was a 10-base palindrome (5'-aGACAtgtct-3') in the alignment of the DJ2 (5'-GACA-3') region. From these findings, we propose a novel mutation process with the rearrangement probably resulting from stem-loop induced non-homologous recombination in an ICS-like fashion. Both patients, despite lacking ARHGAP4, had no morphological, clinical, or laboratory abnormalities except for those usually found in patients with NDI. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                March 2004
                02 March 2004
                : 61
                : 2
                : 63-67
                2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Japan
                75241 Horm Res 2004;61:63–67
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 5
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