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      Intraaortic balloon pump support during coronary angioplasty. Initial experience

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the intraaortic balloon (IAoB) in association with coronary angioplasty in high-risk patients. METHODS: Fourteen high-risk patients unresponsive to clinical therapy and with formal contraindication to surgical revascularization were treated by coronary angioplasty, most of which was followed by stenting. All procedures were performed with circulatory support with the IAoB. This study reports the early results and the late findings after 12 months of follow-up. Six patients had multivessel coronary disease; of these, four had left main equivalent lesions and two had unprotected left main coronary artery disease, one of whom had severe "end-vessel" stenosis and the other was a patient with Chagas' disease with single-vessel lesion. Eleven patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction <30%. RESULTS: In 100% of the patients, the procedures were initially successful. Two patients had severe bleeding during the withdrawal of the left femoral sheath. At the end of twelve months, 4 patients were asymptomatic and the others were clinically controlled. There were two late deaths in the 7th and 11th months. CONCLUSION: The combined use of the intraaortic balloon pump and percutaneous coronary angioplasty in high-risk patients with acute ischemic syndromes provides the necessary hemodynamic stability to successfully perform the procedures.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Augmentation of regional coronary blood flow by intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in patients with unstable angina.

           R Fuchs,  K Brin,  J A Brinker (1983)
          Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation is capable of reducing afterload in patients with unstable angina. Whether it is also capable of augmenting coronary blood flow to poststenotic myocardium is controversial. We studied seven patients receiving maximal drug therapy and requiring balloon pumping for unstable angina as balloon volume and assist ratio were altered. All patients had greater than 90% stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. With maximal augmentation (40 cc balloon volume, 1:1 assist ratio) great cardiac vein flow, representing the efflux from the left anterior descending coronary artery bed, rose from a baseline of 52 +/- 20 to 67 +/- 25 ml/min (mean +/- SD, p = .004) and mean aortic diastolic pressure increased from 77 +/- 13 to 99 +/- 33 mm Hg (p = .004). Increased great cardiac vein flow correlated with increased mean aortic diastolic pressure across changes in balloon volumes (off, 20 cc, 30 cc, and 40 cc) and changes in assist ratio (off, 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1) (p = .02). However, the intermediate balloon volumes produced great cardiac vein flows at an intermediate level between full assist and no assist (p less than .05), whereas the intermediate assist ratios did not augment flow. Thus balloon pumping increased flow to a bed fed by collateral vessels or critical stenoses; this increased flow correlated with increased aortic diastolic pressure, indicating probable loss of autoregulatory ability.
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            Intraaortic Balloon Pump Support during High-Risk Coronary Angioplasty

            Intraaortic balloon pump support has been demonstrated to be of clinical benefit when used therapeutically and prophylactically in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Afterload reduction and post-PTCA-enhanced coronary blood flow afforded by diastolic augmentation during intraaortic balloon pumping provides hemodynamic stabilization, attenuates clinical perturbations of myocardial ischemia, and may provide an important ‘bridge’ to emergent coronary bypass surgery following abrupt vessel closure complicating PTCA. Recent studies demonstrate a reduction in cardiac morbidity and improved coronary artery patency among patients receiving prophylactic intraaortic balloon pumping after establishing infarct artery reperfusion during acute cardiac catheterization for acute myocardial infarction. A modest increase in cardiac output (20-30%), the requirement of a stable, regular cardiac rhythm, peripheral vascular disease and aortic insufficiency limits the use of intraaortic balloon pump support in relatively few patients. These studies demonstrate that intraaortic balloon counteφulsation provides an effective and safe form of mechanical support in many high-risk patients undergoing PTCA.
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              Arterial diastolic pressure augmentation by intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation enhances the onset of coronary artery reperfusion by thrombolytic therapy.

              The early establishment of infarct artery reperfusion by intravenous thrombolytic therapy has improved survival after acute myocardial infarction. Investigations of reperfusion have focused on the effects of specific thrombolytic agents, anticoagulation, and platelet inhibition. However, little attention has been given to the relation of arterial blood pressure to thrombolysis, a factor that probably affects thrombolytic agent delivery to the obstructing thrombus.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                abc
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC (São Paulo )
                1678-4170
                August 1999
                : 73
                : 2
                : 191-200
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital das Forças Armadas Brazil
                Article
                S0066-782X1999000800007
                10.1590/S0066-782X1999000800007
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                CARDIAC & CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                circulatory support, coronary angioplasty, intraaortic balloon pump

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