10
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Recognition and signaling by toll-like receptors.

      Annual review of cell and developmental biology

      Animals, Humans, Ligands, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptors, chemistry, metabolism

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins that detect invading pathogens by binding conserved, microbially derived molecules and that induce signaling cascades for proinflammatory gene expression. A critical component of the innate immune system, TLRs utilize leucine-rich-repeat motifs for ligand binding and a shared cytoplasmic domain to recruit the adaptors MyD88, TRIF, TIRAP, and/or TRAM for downstream signaling. Despite significant domain conservation, TLRs induce gene programs that lead not only to the robust production of general proinflammatory mediators but also to the production of unique effectors, which provide pathogen-tailored immune responses. Here we review the mechanisms by which TLRs recognize pathogens and induce distinct signaling cascades.

          Related collections

          Author and article information

          Journal
          16822173
          10.1146/annurev.cellbio.21.122303.115827

          Chemistry

          Animals, Humans, Ligands, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptors, chemistry, metabolism

          Comments

          Comment on this article