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      Insect galls from Serra Geral, Caetité, BA, Brazil Translated title: Galhas de insetos da Serra Geral, Caetité, Bahia, Brasil

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          Abstract

          We inventoried and characterized the kinds of gall, gall-inducing insects and host plants from Serra Geral between August 2013 and July 2014. Two phytophysiognomies, cerrado sensu stricto and caatinga-cerrado, were examined monthly along transects during ca. 4 hours per visit, totaling 48 hours of sampling effort. A total of 49 gall morphotypes were found on 14 species of host plants in 18 genera and 13 families. Fabaceae and Malpighiaceae were the families with the most galls, with 22 and 10 gall morphotypes, respectively. The genera of host plant with the greatest richness of galls were Copaifera L. (n=10), Bauhinia Benth. (n=6), and Mimosa L. (n=5). Galls were found on leaves, buds and stems. The majority of the galls were globoid, glabrous, isolated, and one-chambered. The inducers belong to Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera, Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) being the most frequent and diverse gall-inducers. The associated fauna included parasitoids (Hymenoptera), successors (Formicidae), and predators (Pseudoscorpiones), obtained from 13, 2, and 1 gall morphotypes, respectively. Five plant taxa are recorded as hosts of gall-inducing insects for the first time.

          Translated abstract

          Inventariamos e caracterizamos os tipos de galhas, insetos galhadores e plantas hospedeiras da Serra Geral entre agosto de 2013 a julho de 2014. Duas fitofisionomias, cerrado sensu stricto e de transição caatinga-cerrado, foram examinadas ao longo de trilhas è procura de galhas entomógenas, durante quatro horas por visita, totalizando 48 horas de esforço amostral. Um total de 49 morfotipos de galhas foi encontrado em 14 espécies vegetais pertencentes a 18 gêneros e 13 famílias. Fabaceae e Malpighiaceae foram as famílias botânicas com maior riqueza de galhas, com 22 e 10 morfotipos, respectivamente. Os gêneros de planta hospedeira mais ricos em galhas foram Copaifera L. (n=10), Bauhinia Benth. (n=6) e Mimosa L. (n=4). As galhas foram encontradas em folhas, gemas e caules. A maioria das galhas foram globoides, glabras, isoladas e uniloculares. Os galhadores pertencem ès ordens Coleoptera, Diptera e Lepidoptera, sendo os insetos da família Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) os indutores mais frequentes e diversificados. A fauna associada incluiu parasitoides (Hymenoptera), sucessores (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) e predadores (Pseudoscorpiones), obtidos de 13, dois e um morfotipos de galhas, respectivamente. Cinco táxons de plantas são registrados como hospedeiras de galhas pela primeira vez.

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          Most cited references 106

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          The gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

          One hundred and eight species of Cecidomyiinae (Cecidomyiidae) were found in association with 53 species of plant distributed among 42 genera and 32 families at restingas of Barra de Maricá, Itaipuaçu and Carapebus. Ninety four gall midge species were cecidogenous, four predaceous, five inquilinous of galls and five were free living. Galling species were associated with 47 plant species belonging to 36 genera and 28 families. The majority of the galls occurred on the leaves (N = 63); 13 on buds; nine on inflorescence, closed flower or flower peduncle; three on fruits and one on tendril. Myrtaceae were the richest plant family in number of galls followed by Burseraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Sapotaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiaceae and Solanaceae. New records of host plants and localities were recorded. Seventy nine Cecidomyiinae species were found at Restinga of Barra de Maricá, 64 at Carapebus and 41 at Itaipuaçu. Sorensen's index revealed that the restingas of Barra de Maricá and Itaipuaçu ate more similar in Cecidomyiinae fauna, confirming a positive relation between geographical proximity and fauna similarity.
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            Leguminosas da Caatinga

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              Are gall midge species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) host-plant specialists?

              Despite the speciose fauna of gall-inducing insects in the Neotropical region, little is known about their taxonomy. On the other hand, gall morphotypes associated with host species have been extensively used as a surrogate of the inducer species worldwide. This study reviewed the described gall midges and their galls to test the generalization on the use of gall morphotypes as surrogates of gall midge species in the Brazilian fauna. We compiled taxonomic and biological data for 196 gall midge species recorded on 128 host plant species. Ninety two percent of those species were monophagous, inducing galls on a single host plant species, whereas only 5.6% species were oligophagous, inducing galls on more than one congeneric host plant species. Only four species induced galls on more than one host plant genus. We conclude that gall morphotypes associated with information on the host plant species and attacked organs are reliable surrogates of the gall-inducing species.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bn
                Biota Neotropica
                Biota Neotrop.
                Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP
                1676-0611
                March 2016
                : 16
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade do Estado da Bahia Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                Article
                S1676-06032016000100202
                10.1590/1676-0611-BN-2015-0035

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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