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      Potential Effects of Animal Activity on the Spatial Distribution ofIxodes scapularisandAmblyomma americanum(Acari: Ixodidae)

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          Biometry.

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            Comparison of flagging, walking, trapping, and collecting from hosts as sampling methods for northern deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, and lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (Acari:Ixodidae).

            Ticks were sampled by flagging, collecting from the investigator's clothing (walking samples), trapping with dry-ice bait, and collecting from mammal hosts on Fire Island, NY, U.S.A. The habitat distribution of adult deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, was the same in simultaneous collections from the investigator's clothing and from muslin flags. Walking and flagging samples can both be biased by differences between investigators, so the same person should do comparative samples whenever possible. Walking samples probably give a more accurate estimate than flagging samples of the human risk of encountering ticks. However, ticks (such as immature I. dammini) that seek hosts in leaf litter and ground-level vegetation are poorly sampled by walking collections. These ticks can be sampled by flagging at ground level. Dry-ice-baited tick-traps caught far more lone-star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, than deer ticks, even in areas where deer ticks predominated in flagging samples. In comparisons of tick mobility in the lab, nymphal A. americanum were more mobile than nymphal I. dammini in 84% of the trials. Therefore, the trapping bias may result from increased trap encounter due to more rapid movement by A. americanum, although greater attraction to carbon dioxide may also play a role. Tick traps are useful for intraspecific between-habitat comparisons. Early in their seasonal activity period, larval I. dammini were better represented in collections from mouse hosts than in flagging samples. Apparently, sampling from favored hosts can detect ticks at low population levels, but often cannot be used to get accurate estimates of pathogen prevalence in questing ticks.
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              A comparison of methods for sampling the deer tick, Ixodes dammini, in a Lyme disease endemic area.

              The purpose of this study was to compare the trapping and examining of mice, drag sampling, and CO2-baited traps for their ability to detect the presence and abundance of immature deer ticks, Ixodes dammini, in a Lyme disease endemic area in southern New York State. Eight study sites were sampled 14 times between 28 May and 31 August by setting 49 live-traps, four CO2-baited traps, and drag sampling 500 m2. A total of 1540 nymphs and 3079 larvae was collected during the study. Drag sampling collected the most nymphs (705), while more larvae were recovered from CO2-baited traps (1105). Comparisons among the methods showed a significant difference in the numbers of both larval and nymphal ticks collected (P less than 0.01). There was a positive correlation between the numbers of nymphs collected by drag sampling and CO2-baited tick traps (rs = 0.83, P less than 0.05), and between the numbers of larvae collected by drag sampling and mouse trapping (rs = 0.75, P less than 0.05). These results suggest that drag sampling would be the single most reliable method for quantitatively sampling immature I. dammini populations in a Lyme disease endemic area.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Environmental Entomology
                Environ Entomol
                Entomological Society of America
                0046-225X
                1938-2936
                June 01 2001
                June 01 2001
                : 30
                : 3
                : 568-577
                10.1603/0046-225X-30.3.568
                © 2001

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