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Central neuropathic pain: implications on quality of life of spinal cord injury patients Translated title: Dor neuropática central: implicações na qualidade de vida de pacientes com lesão medular

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      Abstract

      ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain is one consequence of spinal cord injury, added to micturition and intestinal disorders, changes in sexuality and reproduction, and social and family issues. Understanding pain and its interference with quality of life may help professionals assisting patients to find the most adequate way to control neuropathic pain. Investigators of the International Association for the Study of Pain have evaluated articles from 1975 to 2007 and have observed that the least studied subject was spinal cord pain. This study aimed at evaluating quality of life of patients with neuropathic pain induced by traumatic spinal cord injury. METHODS: This is a quantitative, transversal, exploratory and descriptive research. RESULTS: Seventy percent of patients with neuropathic pain classify it as severe to intense, with scores above five in the visual analog scale. Males, aged between 30 and 39 years, married, with injury by fall, paraplegic, with incomplete injury and injury time between one and five years are those most suffering with pain. Quality of life is better for patients with complete spinal cord injury and who were wounded by firearm. Patients with fecal incontinence have referred worse quality of life and also stated that pain impaired their lives. CONCLUSION: It was observed that patients referring more severe pain have worse quality of life and social relations, which address personal relations, sexual life and support from friends.

      Translated abstract

      RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor é uma das consequências da lesão medular, somada às disfunções miccional e intestinal, alterações na sexualidade e reprodução, às questões sociais e familiares. Conhecer a dor e sua interferência na qualidade de vida pode fazer com que o profissional que assiste o paciente consiga seguir o caminho mais adequado para o controle da dor neuropática. Estudiosos da Associação Internacional para Estudo da Dor, pesquisaram artigos de 1975 até 2007, e observaram que o tema menos estudado é sobre dor em lesão medular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com dor neuropática decorrente de lesão medular traumática. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa, transversal, exploratória e descritiva. RESULTADOS: Setenta por cento dos pacientes com dor neuropática a caracterizam como forte a intensa, com valor superior a cinco na escala analógica visual. Homens, com idade entre 30 e 39 anos, casados, lesão por queda, paraplégicos, com lesão incompleta e tempo de lesão entre um e cinco anos são os que mais sofrem com dor. A qualidade de vida é melhor em pacientes com diagnóstico de lesão medular completa e que tiveram o ferimento por arma de fogo como causa da lesão. Pacientes com incontinência fecal referiram pior qualidade de vida e também afirmam que a dor atrapalha sua vida. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que pacientes que referiram maior intensidade de dor têm pior relação em qualidade de vida e no fator social, que aborda relações pessoais, vida sexual e apoio que recebem dos amigos.

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      A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of pain in the first 5 years following spinal cord injury.

      A longitudinal cohort study of 100 people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to determine the prevalence and severity of different types of pain (musculoskeletal, visceral, neuropathic at-level, neuropathic below-level) at 5 years following SCI. Prospective data on the characteristics of pain up to 6 months following injury had been collected previously and allowed comparisons between the presence of pain at different time points. In addition, we sought to determine the relationship between the presence of pain and physical factors related to the injury such as level of lesion, completeness and clinical SCI syndrome. We also obtained information regarding mood, global self-rated health and the impact of pain on function. Of the 100 subjects in the original cohort, 73 were available for follow up. When all types of pain were included, 59 of the 73 subjects (81%) reported the presence of pain. Musculoskeletal pain was the most common type of pain experienced and was present in 43 subjects (59%), at-level neuropathic pain was present in 30 subjects (41%), below-level neuropathic pain was present in 25 subjects (34%) and visceral pain was present in four subjects (5%). Overall, 58% reported their pain as severe or excruciating and those with visceral pain were most likely to rate their pain in these categories. There was no relationship between the presence of pain overall and level or completeness of lesion, or type of injury. However, tetraplegics were more likely to report below-level neuropathic pain. This study prospectively demonstrates the differing time courses of different types of pain over the first 5 years following SCI. There was a strong correlation between the presence of both types of neuropathic pain at 5 years and earlier time points but both visceral pain and musculoskeletal pain demonstrated a poor correlation between time points. Chronic visceral pain occurs in a small percentage of patients and does not correlate with the presence of visceral pain early following injury. Those with neuropathic pain early following their injury are likely to continue to experience ongoing pain and the pain is likely to be severe. In contrast, chronic musculoskeletal pain is more common but less likely to be severe and cannot be predicted by the presence of pain in the first 6 months following injury.
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        Pain report and the relationship of pain to physical factors in the first 6 months following spinal cord injury.

        A prospective, longitudinal study of 100 people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to determine the time of onset. prevalence and severity of different types of pain (musculoskeletal, visceral, neuropathic at level, neuropathic below level) at 2, 4, 8, 13 and 26 weeks following SCI. In addition, we sought to determine the relationship between physical factors such as level of lesion, completeness and clinical SCI syndrome and the presence of pain. At 6 months following SCI, 40% of people had musculoskeletal pain, none had visceral pain, 36% had neuropathic at level pain and 19% had neuropathic below level pain. When all types of pain were included, at 6 months following injury, 64% of people in the study had pain, and 21% of people had pain that was rated as severe. Those with neuropathic below level pain were most likely to report their pain as severe or excruciating. There was no relationship between the presence of pain overall and level or completeness of lesion, or type of injury. Significant differences were found, however, when specific types of pain were examined. Musculoskeletal pain was more common in people with thoracic level injuries. Neuropathic pain associated with allodynia was more common in people who had incomplete spinal cord lesions, cervical rather than thoracic spinal cord lesions, and central cord syndrome. Therefore, this study suggests that most people continue to experience pain 6 months following spinal cord injury and 21% of people continue to experience severe pain. While the presence or absence of pain overall does not appear to be related to physical factors following SCI, there does appear to be a relationship between physical factors and pain when the pain is classified into specific types.
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          Neuropathic pain after traumatic spinal cord injury--relations to gender, spinal level, completeness, and age at the time of injury.

          Retrospective register study. To investigate the predictive value of age at the time of injury, gender, level of injury, and completeness of injury for the development of at level and below level neuropathic pain. "Spinalis", a postacute spinal cord injury (SCI) outpatient clinic, serving the greater Stockholm area (Sweden). All patients who visited the clinic in 1995-2000 (402 patients) for the first time were examined. The following items were selected: at-level and below-level neuropathic pain according to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) criteria, age at the time of injury, gender, level of injury according to ASIA, and completeness of injury. Mean time of 6 years after the injury. Results were analysed with chi(2) analysis and logistic regression. Of all patients examined, 13% had at level pain and 27% had below level pain. Neuropathic pain was less than half as frequent (26%) in the group aged less than 20 years at the time of injury as in the oldest group (58%). The increasing trend was mainly due to below-level pain up to 39 years of age, and due to at-level pain at ages 40 and above at the time of injury. No correlation was observed to gender, level of injury or completeness of injury, except for below level pain, which was associated with complete injury. The results show that neuropathic pain after SCI is common and occurs much more often in patients injured at higher ages. This indicates the importance of neuroanalgetic intervention, in particular for patients injured in higher ages.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rdor
            Revista Dor
            Rev. dor
            Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor (São Paulo )
            2317-6393
            December 2015
            : 16
            : 4
            : 280-284
            S1806-00132015000400280 10.5935/1806-0013.20150057

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            CLINICAL NEUROLOGY
            CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
            NEUROSCIENCES

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