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      The fear of needles: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      1 , 2
      Journal of Advanced Nursing
      Wiley

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          Vaccine Hesitancy: Causes, Consequences, and a Call to Action.

          Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the systems to make sure vaccines are safe.
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            The epidemiology of common fears and phobia.

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              Barriers to adult immunization.

              Our aim was to provide a better understanding of why many adults fail to receive recommended immunizations. Consumers (N = 2,002) and healthcare providers (N = 200) completed structured telephone interviews concerning their attitudes and knowledge about adult vaccines and factors affecting their vaccination decisions. Self-reported immunization rates for tetanus, influenza, and pneumococcal vaccines (which were emphasized in the surveys) were lower than goal rates set by national guidelines. Among the most common reasons consumers gave for not receiving immunizations were lack of physician recommendations and mistaken assumptions (e.g., healthy people do not need immunizations). Healthcare providers tended to cite concerns such as side effects, fear of needles, and lack of insurance coverage as reasons consumers forego vaccination. Providers also cited practice issues, such as lack of an effective reminder system, as barriers to increasing adult immunization rates. We conclude that a better understanding of why adults do not get vaccinated is important for efforts to increase immunization rates in this broad age group.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Advanced Nursing
                J Adv Nurs
                Wiley
                03092402
                January 2019
                January 2019
                September 11 2018
                : 75
                : 1
                : 30-42
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Public Health; University of Michigan; Ann Arbor Michigan
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine; University of Michigan; Ann Arbor Michigan
                Article
                10.1111/jan.13818
                30109720
                347f171b-7bde-41ae-939b-771c5ea66004
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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