5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
3 collections
    0
    shares
      Are you tired of sifting through news that doesn't interest you?
      Personalize your Karger newsletter today and get only the news that matters to you!

      Sign up

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease Following COVID-19 Infection

      case-report

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          A 29-year-old female presented to the emergency clinic with gradual visual disturbance in both eyes for 15 days duration, accompanied by bilateral tinnitus, and ocular pain that increased with ocular movements. One month prior to presentation, the patient had tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 but without complications. Visual acuity was 20/100 in the right eye and 20/300 in the left eye. Funduscopy demonstrated optic nerve swelling, radial nerve fiber striation disruption, and bilateral retinal folds. Optical coherence tomography showed serous (bacillary) retinal detachment and multifocal areas of hyper-reflective changes in the inner and outer plexiform layer with inner nuclear layer thickening and disruption of the interdigitation zone bilaterally. We present a case of incomplete Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease following COVID-19 infection.

          Related collections

          Most cited references11

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Can the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Affect the Eyes? A Review of Coronaviruses and Ocular Implications in Humans and Animals

          ABSTRACT In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) epidemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from China. This virus causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since then, there have been anecdotal reports of ocular infection. The ocular implications of human CoV infections have not been widely studied. However, CoVs have been known to cause various ocular infections in animals. Clinical entities such as conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis, retinitis, and optic neuritis have been documented in feline and murine models. In this article, the current evidence suggesting possible human CoV infection of ocular tissue is reviewed. The review article will also highlight animal CoVs and their associated ocular infections. We hope that this article will serve as a start for further research into the ocular implications of human CoV infections.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Paracentral acute middle maculopathy and acute macular neuroretinopathy following SARS-CoV-2 infection

            To the Editor: Ophthalmic complications of COVID-19 are predicted based on prior knowledge of other coronaviruses [1]. Conjunctivitis can be the presenting sign/symptom and its presence correlates with severity [2–4]. Cotton wool spots and retinal microhaemorrhages have also been reported [5]. We report two patients who presented with a new paracentral scotoma following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patient 1: A 37-year-old Caucasian female in week 14 of an uncomplicated pregnancy presented with a 1-day history of abrupt onset, faintly colourful, left eye paracentral scotoma. This was 35 days following the onset of a febrile illness with cough and anosmia. SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab was not performed during the infection, but subsequently positive serology (IgG) has been confirmed. Past medical history included acephalgic visual migraine aura and right toxoplasma chorioretinitis. Examination showed normal visual acuity, no uveitis and fundoscopy was normal in the left eye. OCT changes correlated with the location of the scotoma (Fig. 1). A focal area of hyper-reflective change in the inner and outer plexiform layers with inner nuclear layer volume loss was seen consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM). Bloods were normal, including ESR, CRP, lipids, glucose, ANA and anti-phospholipid antibodies. An electrocardiogram and carotid Doppler ultrasound were normal. Fig. 1 Optical coherence tomography image from patient 1. Focal area of hyper-reflective change in the inner and outer plexiform layers with inner nuclear layer volume loss consistent with paracentral acute middle maculopathy. Patient 2: A 32-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 4-day history of abrupt onset, faintly colourful, right eye paracentral scotoma. This was 16 days following the onset of nasopharyngeal swab confirmed COVID-19. Past medical history included acephalgic visual migraine aura. Examination showed normal visual acuity, no uveitis and fundoscopy was normal. Changes on infrared reflectance (white arrow) and OCT correlated with the location of the scotoma (Fig. 2). A focal area of faint outer plexiform layer hyper-reflective change (black arrow) and disruption of the interdigitation zone (white box) were seen consistent with acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). Fig. 2 Infrared reflectance and optical coherence tomography images from patient 2. Focal area of IR change (white arrow) due to faint outer plexiform layer hyper-reflective change (black arrow) and disruption of the interdigitation zone (white box) on OCT consistent with acute macular neuroretinopathy. These patients developed PAMM and AMN soon after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and possibly represent postinfectious complications. COVID-19 has been reported in association with acute limb ischaemia, stroke and the so called “paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection” [6–8]. PAMM and AMN have similar underlying pathophysiology. PAMM was first described as a variant of AMN [9], but they are now regarded as distinct conditions with overlapping features. PAMM OCT changes are seen in various retinal vascular diseases, such as retinal vein and artery occlusion. OCT angiography (OCT-A) has provided further support for a retinal vascular aetiology in PAMM and AMN [10–15]. Projection resolved OCT-A distinguishes the intermediate from the deep capillary plexus, which run either side of the inner nuclear layer. Using this technique, it has been shown that PAMM occurs in association with reduced flow in the intermediate, deep and occasionally the superficial capillary plexuses, whereas AMN occurs in association with reduced flow in the deep capillary plexus [15]. Finally, in a series of 101 AMN cases, an associated infection or febrile illness was reported in 47.5% [16]. This is the first report of PAMM/AMN following COVID-19. A larger case series is needed to determine if there is a true association.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Panuveitis and Optic Neuritis as a Possible Initial Presentation of the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2021
                September - December 2021
                21 September 2021
                : 12
                : 3
                : 804-808
                Affiliations
                [_a] aVitreoretinal Surgery Department, Clinica de Ojos, Maracaibo, Venezuela
                [_b] bGlaucoma Department, Clinica de Ojos, Maracaibo, Venezuela
                [_c] cPediatric and Strabismus Department, Clinica de Ojos, Maracaibo, Venezuela
                [_d] dRetina Department, Sotero del Rio Hospital, Santiago de Chile, Chile
                [_e] eRetina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6104-5737
                Article
                518834 PMC8525290 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2021;12:804–808
                10.1159/000518834
                PMC8525290
                34720981
                348407cf-c9ac-4586-b664-65bf67446b05
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 21 June 2021
                : 01 August 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Case Report

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                COVID-19,SARS-CoV-2,Serous retinal detachment,Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease

                Comments

                Comment on this article