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      Pathogenesis of premature coronary artery disease: Focus on risk factors and genetic variants

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          Abstract

          The development of premature coronary artery disease (PCAD) is dependent on both genetic predisposition and traditional risk factors. Strategies for unraveling the genetic basis of PCAD have evolved with the advent of modern technologies. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a considerable number of common genetic variants that are associated with PCAD. Most of these genetic variants are attributable to lipid and blood pressure-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The genetic variants that predispose individuals to developing PCAD may depend on race and ethnicity. Some characteristic genetic variants have been identified in Chinese populations. Although translating this genetic knowledge into clinical applications is still challenging, these genetic variants can be used for CAD phenotype identification, genetic prediction and therapy. In this article we will provide a comprehensive review of genetic variants detected by GWASs that are predicted to contribute to the development of PCAD. We will highlight recent findings regarding CAD-related genetic variants in Chinese populations and discuss the potential clinical utility of genetic variants for preventing and managing PCAD.

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          Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease.

          Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved.
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            Evolocumab and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

            Evolocumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by approximately 60%. Whether it prevents cardiovascular events is uncertain.
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              A comprehensive 1000 Genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis of coronary artery disease

              Existing knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is largely based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis of common SNPs. Leveraging phased haplotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of 185 thousand CAD cases and controls, interrogating 6.7 million common (MAF>0.05) as well as 2.7 million low frequency (0.005
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                10 November 2020
                March 2022
                10 November 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                : 370-380
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital & Chinese PLA Medical School, Beijing 100853, PR China
                [b ]The First Clinical Medical College of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot 010059, PR China
                [c ]Department of Hematology, The Second Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital & Chinese PLA Medical School, Beijing 100853, PR China
                [d ]Department of Health Services, The First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital & Chinese PLA Medical School, Beijing 100853, PR China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital & Chinese PLA Medical School, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, PR China. bjzhangran@ 123456126.com
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital & Chinese PLA Medical School, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, PR China. cyundai@ 123456vip.163.com
                [1]

                Haiming Wang and Zifan Liu contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                S2352-3042(20)30134-3
                10.1016/j.gendis.2020.11.003
                8843894
                35224153
                34867e26-356e-49d6-b3e4-ae39067194ec
                © 2020 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 June 2020
                : 17 October 2020
                : 4 November 2020
                Categories
                Review Article

                genetic clinical applications,genetic variants,genome-wide association studies,premature coronary artery disease,single-nucleotide polymorphisms

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