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      Targeting Lung Cancer Stem Cells with Antipsychological Drug Thioridazine

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          Abstract

          Lung cancer stem cells are a subpopulation of cells critical for lung cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. Thioridazine, a classical neurological drug, has been reported with anticancer ability. However, whether thioridazine could inhibit lung cancer stem cells has never been studied. In our current work, we used different dosage of thioridazine to test its effect on lung cancer stem cells sphere formation. The response of lung cancer stem cells to chemotherapy drug with thioridazine treatment was measured. The cell cycle distribution of lung cancer stem cells after thioridazine treatment was detected. The in vivo inhibitory effect of thioridazine was also measured. We found that thioridazine could dramatically inhibit sphere formation of lung cancer stem cells. It sensitized the LCSCs to chemotherapeutic drugs 5-FU and cisplatin. Thioridazine altered the cell cycle distribution of LCSCs and decreased the proportion of G0 phase cells in lung cancer stem cells. Thioridazine inhibited lung cancer stem cells initiated tumors growth in vivo. This study showed that thioridazine could inhibit lung cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. It provides a potential drug for lung cancer therapy through targeting lung cancer stem cells.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Identification of drugs including a dopamine receptor antagonist that selectively target cancer stem cells.

          Selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs) offers promise for a new generation of therapeutics. However, assays for both human CSCs and normal stem cells that are amenable to robust biological screens are limited. Using a discovery platform that reveals differences between neoplastic and normal human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), we identify small molecules from libraries of known compounds that induce differentiation to overcome neoplastic self-renewal. Surprisingly, thioridazine, an antipsychotic drug, selectively targets the neoplastic cells, and impairs human somatic CSCs capable of in vivo leukemic disease initiation while having no effect on normal blood SCs. The drug antagonizes dopamine receptors that are expressed on CSCs and on breast cancer cells as well. These results suggest that dopamine receptors may serve as a biomarker for diverse malignancies, demonstrate the utility of using neoplastic hPSCs for identifying CSC-targeting drugs, and provide support for the use of differentiation as a therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            WNT signaling regulates self-renewal and differentiation of prostate cancer cells with stem cell characteristics.

            Prostate cancer cells with stem cell characteristics were identified in human prostate cancer cell lines by their ability to form from single cells self-renewing prostaspheres in non-adherent cultures. Prostaspheres exhibited heterogeneous expression of proliferation, differentiation and stem cell-associated makers CD44, ABCG2 and CD133. Treatment with WNT inhibitors reduced both prostasphere size and self-renewal. In contrast, addition of Wnt3a caused increased prostasphere size and self-renewal, which was associated with a significant increase in nuclear beta-catenin, keratin 18, CD133 and CD44 expression. As a high proportion of LNCaP and C4-2B cancer cells express androgen receptor we determined the effect of the androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide. Androgen receptor inhibition reduced prostasphere size and expression of PSA, but did not inhibit prostasphere formation. These effects are consistent with the androgen-independent self-renewal of cells with stem cell characteristics and the androgen-dependent proliferation of transit amplifying cells. As the canonical WNT signaling effector beta-catenin can also associate with the androgen receptor, we propose a model for tumour propagation involving a balance between WNT and androgen receptor activity. That would affect the self-renewal of a cancer cell with stem cell characteristics and drive transit amplifying cell proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that WNT activity regulates the self-renewal of prostate cancer cells with stem cell characteristics independently of androgen receptor activity. Inhibition of WNT signaling therefore has the potential to reduce the self-renewal of prostate cancer cells with stem cell characteristics and improve the therapeutic outcome.
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              The cancer stem cell hypothesis: a work in progress.

              There is a growing body of evidence that supports the idea that malignant tumors are initiated and maintained by a population of tumor cells that share similar biologic properties to normal adult stem cells. This model, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, is based on the observation that tumors, like adult tissues, arise from cells that exhibit the ability to self-renew as well as give rise to differentiated tissue cells. Although the concept of the CSC is not entirely new, advances made over the past two decades in our understanding of normal stem cell biology in conjunction with the recent application of these concepts to experimentally define CSCs have resulted in the identification of CSCs in several human malignancies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2016
                31 July 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                Department of Oncology, Liuzhou City Workers Hospital, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Liuzhou 545000, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Anne Hamburger

                Article
                10.1155/2016/6709828
                4983333
                27556038
                Copyright © 2016 Haiying Yue et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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