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Removal of synthetic sex hormones by hydrothermal carbonization

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      Abstract

      ABSTRACT One of the most prominent fields of environmental chemistry is the study and the removal of micro-pollutants from aqueous matrices. Analytical techniques for their identification and quantification are becoming more sensitive and comprehensive and, as a result, an increasing number of drugs have been detected in environmental samples. However, the literature shows that conventional treatments for drinking water and wastewater are not sufficient for remove these compounds. This study aims to check whether the process of hydrothermal carbonization (CHT) is effective in removing the synthetic sex hormones: ethinyl estradiol, gestodene and cyproterone acetate from aqueous samples. The system used in CHT basically consists of a pressurized reactor made of stainless steel and solutions of compounds of interest, both individual and mixed, with a concentration of 1.0 μg.L-1 and a pH range of 2.0 to 3.0. The maximum surface temperature in the reactor was about 180 °C, the internal pressure was 20 bar with 90 minutes for the reaction. Four experiments were conducted, one for each hormone and one with the three hormones together. In individual tests removal of the compounds was found to be 99.8% for ethinyl estradiol, 99.3% for gestodene and 100% for cyproterone acetate. For a mixture of the hormones treated under the same conditions, the mean values of CHT-removal of Ethinylestradiol, Gestodene and Cyproterone Acetate were 99.60%, 96.80% and 68.90%, respectively. The impact of the matrix effect may have affected the efficiency of the hormone removal process by CHT.

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        Research needs for the risk assessment of health and environmental effects of endocrine disruptors: a report of the U.S. EPA-sponsored workshop.

        The hypothesis has been put forward that humans and wildlife species adverse suffered adverse health effects after exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Reported adverse effects include declines in populations, increases in cancers, and reduced reproductive function. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a workshop in April 1995 to bring together interested parties in an effort to identify research gaps related to this hypothesis and to establish priorities for future research activities. Approximately 90 invited participants were organized into work groups developed around the principal reported health effects-carcinogenesis, reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, and immunotoxicity-as well as along the risk assessment paradigm-hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Attention focused on both ecological and human health effects. In general, group felt that the hypothesis warranted a concerted research effort to evaluate its validity and that research should focus primarily on effects on development of reproductive capability, on improved exposure assessment, and on the effects of mixtures. This report summarizes the discussions of the work groups and details the recommendations for additional research.
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          Black perspectives for a green future: hydrothermal carbons for environment protection and energy storage

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Goiânia orgnameInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás Brazil
            Goiânia Goiás orgnameUniversidade Federal de Goiás orgdiv1Escola de Engenharia Civil orgdiv2Pós-Graduação em Engenharia do Meio Ambiente Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            aabc
            Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
            An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc.
            Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
            0001-3765
            1678-2690
            May 2018
            : 90
            : 2
            : 1327-1336
            S0001-37652018000401327 10.1590/0001-3765201820170176

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 10
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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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