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      Renal Redox Stress and Remodeling in Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, and Diabetic Nephropathy: Paying Homage to the Podocyte

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          Type 2 diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. The metabolic syndrome constitutes a milieu conducive to tissue redox stress. This loss of redox homeostasis contributes to renal remodeling and parallels the concurrent increased vascular redox stress associated with the cardiometabolic syndrome. The multiple metabolic toxicities, redox stress and endothelial dysfunction combine to weave the complicated mosaic fabric of diabetic glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy. A better understanding may provide both the clinician and researcher tools to unravel this complicated disease process. Cellular remodeling of podocyte foot processes in the Ren-2 transgenic rat model of tissue angiotensin II overexpression (TG(mREN-2)27) and the Zucker diabetic fatty model of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been observed in preliminary studies. Importantly, angiotensin II receptor blockers have been shown to abrogate these ultrastructural changes in the foot processes of the podocyte in preliminary studies. An integrated, global risk reduction, approach in therapy addressing the multiple metabolic abnormalities combined with attempts to reach therapeutic goals at an earlier stage could have a profound effect on the development and progressive nature to end-stage renal disease and ultimately renal replacement therapy.

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          Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease.

           G M Reaven (1988)
          Resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is present in the majority of patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and in approximately 25% of nonobese individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance. In these conditions, deterioration of glucose tolerance can only be prevented if the beta-cell is able to increase its insulin secretory response and maintain a state of chronic hyperinsulinemia. When this goal cannot be achieved, gross decompensation of glucose homeostasis occurs. The relationship between insulin resistance, plasma insulin level, and glucose intolerance is mediated to a significant degree by changes in ambient plasma free-fatty acid (FFA) concentration. Patients with NIDDM are also resistant to insulin suppression of plasma FFA concentration, but plasma FFA concentrations can be reduced by relatively small increments in insulin concentration. Consequently, elevations of circulating plasma FFA concentration can be prevented if large amounts of insulin can be secreted. If hyperinsulinemia cannot be maintained, plasma FFA concentration will not be suppressed normally, and the resulting increase in plasma FFA concentration will lead to increased hepatic glucose production. Because these events take place in individuals who are quite resistant to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, it is apparent that even small increases in hepatic glucose production are likely to lead to significant fasting hyperglycemia under these conditions. Although hyperinsulinemia may prevent frank decompensation of glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant individuals, this compensatory response of the endocrine pancreas is not without its price. Patients with hypertension, treated or untreated, are insulin resistant, hyperglycemic, and hyperinsulinemic. In addition, a direct relationship between plasma insulin concentration and blood pressure has been noted. Hypertension can also be produced in normal rats when they are fed a fructose-enriched diet, an intervention that also leads to the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The development of hypertension in normal rats by an experimental manipulation known to induce insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia provides further support for the view that the relationship between the three variables may be a causal one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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            Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults

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              Programmed cell death induced by ceramide.

              Sphingomyelin hydrolysis and ceramide generation have been implicated in a signal transduction pathway that mediates the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and other agents on cell growth and differentiation. In many leukemic cells, TNF-alpha causes DNA fragmentation, which leads to programmed cell death (apoptosis). C2-ceramide (0.6 to 5 microM), a synthetic cell-permeable ceramide analog, induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which was inhibited by zinc ion. Other amphiphilic lipids failed to induce apoptosis. The closely related C2-dihydroceramide was also ineffective, which suggests a critical role for the sphingolipid double bond. The effects of C2-ceramide on DNA fragmentation were prevented by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which suggests the existence of two opposing intracellular pathways in the regulation of apoptosis.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2005
                05 October 2005
                : 25
                : 6
                : 553-569
                Departments of aInternal Medicine and bPhysiology and Pharmacology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Mo., USA
                88810 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:553–569
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 4, References: 130, Pages: 17
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