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      Neutrophil: A Cell with Many Roles in Inflammation or Several Cell Types?

      review-article

      Frontiers in Physiology

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      neutrophil, bacteria, infection, inflammation, cancer

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          Abstract

          Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in the circulation, and have been regarded as first line of defense in the innate arm of the immune system. They capture and destroy invading microorganisms, through phagocytosis and intracellular degradation, release of granules, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps after detecting pathogens. Neutrophils also participate as mediators of inflammation. The classical view for these leukocytes is that neutrophils constitute a homogenous population of terminally differentiated cells with a unique function. However, evidence accumulated in recent years, has revealed that neutrophils present a large phenotypic heterogeneity and functional versatility, which place neutrophils as important modulators of both inflammation and immune responses. Indeed, the roles played by neutrophils in homeostatic conditions as well as in pathological inflammation and immune processes are the focus of a renovated interest in neutrophil biology. In this review, I present the concept of neutrophil phenotypic and functional heterogeneity and describe several neutrophil subpopulations reported to date. I also discuss the role these subpopulations seem to play in homeostasis and disease.

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          Most cited references 119

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          Platelet TLR4 activates neutrophil extracellular traps to ensnare bacteria in septic blood.

          It has been known for many years that neutrophils and platelets participate in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis, but the inter-relationship between these players is completely unknown. We report several cellular events that led to enhanced trapping of bacteria in blood vessels: platelet TLR4 detected TLR4 ligands in blood and induced platelet binding to adherent neutrophils. This led to robust neutrophil activation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Plasma from severely septic humans also induced TLR4-dependent platelet-neutrophil interactions, leading to the production of NETs. The NETs retained their integrity under flow conditions and ensnared bacteria within the vasculature. The entire event occurred primarily in the liver sinusoids and pulmonary capillaries, where NETs have the greatest capacity for bacterial trapping. We propose that platelet TLR4 is a threshold switch for this new bacterial trapping mechanism in severe sepsis.
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            Netting neutrophils in autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis.

            Small-vessel vasculitis (SVV) is a chronic autoinflammatory condition linked to antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies (ANCAs). Here we show that chromatin fibers, so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), are released by ANCA-stimulated neutrophils and contain the targeted autoantigens proteinase-3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Deposition of NETs in inflamed kidneys and circulating MPO-DNA complexes suggest that NET formation triggers vasculitis and promotes the autoimmune response against neutrophil components in individuals with SVV.
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              Neutrophils in cancer: neutral no more.

              Neutrophils are indispensable antagonists of microbial infection and facilitators of wound healing. In the cancer setting, a newfound appreciation for neutrophils has come into view. The traditionally held belief that neutrophils are inert bystanders is being challenged by the recent literature. Emerging evidence indicates that tumours manipulate neutrophils, sometimes early in their differentiation process, to create diverse phenotypic and functional polarization states able to alter tumour behaviour. In this Review, we discuss the involvement of neutrophils in cancer initiation and progression, and their potential as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-042X
                20 February 2018
                2018
                : 9
                Affiliations
                Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , Ciudad de México, Mexico
                Author notes

                Edited by: Giovanni Li Volti, Università degli Studi di Catania, Italy

                Reviewed by: Abhishek D. Garg, KU Leuven, Belgium; David Sharkey, University of Adelaide, Australia

                *Correspondence: Carlos Rosales carosal@ 123456unam.mx

                This article was submitted to Integrative Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Article
                10.3389/fphys.2018.00113
                5826082
                3492b013-ab93-424f-82f7-5a4b98926fbd
                Copyright © 2018 Rosales.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 200, Pages: 17, Words: 14959
                Funding
                Funded by: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología 10.13039/501100007350
                Award ID: 254434
                Categories
                Physiology
                Review

                Anatomy & Physiology

                neutrophil, bacteria, infection, inflammation, cancer

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