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      Fabrication of graphene film composite electrochemical biosensor as a pre-screening algal toxin detection tool in the event of water contamination

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      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          In this work, we fabricated a novel graphene film composite biosensor for microcystin-LR detection as an alternative to time-consuming, expensive, non-portable and often skills-demanding conventional methods of analysis involved in water quality monitoring and assessment. Excellent linear correlation ( R 2 = 0.99) of the electron-transfer resistance was achieved over a wide range of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) concentration, i.e. 0.005–10 μg/L. As-prepared graphene film composite biosensors can specifically detect MC-LR with remarkable sensitivity and detection limit (2.3 ng/L) much lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional guideline limit of microcystin-LR concentration (i.e. 1 μg/L) in different water sources. Their great potential can be attributed to large active surface area of graphene film and efficient charge transfer process enabled by their high conductivity. Developed graphene film composite biosensors were also successfully applied to determination of MC-LR in several environmental water samples with high detection recovery, which offers a promising possibility of large-scale manufacture of sensor tips due to their macroscopic free-standing nature, the scalable fabrication route and easily tunable size.

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          Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality and Uniform Graphene Films on Copper Foils

          Graphene has been attracting great interest because of its distinctive band structure and physical properties. Today, graphene is limited to small sizes because it is produced mostly by exfoliating graphite. We grew large-area graphene films of the order of centimeters on copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition using methane. The films are predominantly single layer graphene with a small percentage (less than 5%) of the area having few layers, and are continuous across copper surface steps and grain boundaries. The low solubility of carbon in copper appears to help make this growth process self-limiting. We also developed graphene film transfer processes to arbitrary substrates, and dual-gated field-effect transistors fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrates showed electron mobilities as high as 4050 cm2V-1s-1 at room temperature.
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            30 inch Roll-Based Production of High-Quality Graphene Films for Flexible Transparent Electrodes

            We report that 30-inch scale multiple roll-to-roll transfer and wet chemical doping considerably enhance the electrical properties of the graphene films grown on roll-type Cu substrates by chemical vapor deposition. The resulting graphene films shows a sheet resistance as low as ~30 Ohm/sq at ~90 % transparency which is superior to commercial transparent electrodes such as indium tin oxides (ITO). The monolayer of graphene shows sheet resistances as low as ~125 Ohm/sq with 97.4% optical transmittance and half-integer quantum Hall effect, indicating the high-quality of these graphene films. As a practical application, we also fabricated a touch screen panel device based on the graphene transparent electrodes, showing extraordinary mechanical and electrical performances.
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              Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes.

              Graphene, a two-dimensional monolayer of sp(2)-bonded carbon atoms, has been attracting great interest due to its unique transport properties. One of the promising applications of graphene is as a transparent conductive electrode owing to its high optical transmittance and conductivity. In this paper, we report on an improved transfer process of large-area graphene grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition. The transferred graphene films have high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance that make them suitable for transparent conductive electrode applications. The improved transfer processes will also be of great value for the fabrication of electronic devices such as field effect transistor and bilayer pseudospin field effect transistor devices.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zhangwei@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                16 July 2018
                16 July 2018
                2018
                : 8
                : 10686
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Research Centre for Water Environment Technology, Department of Urban Engineering, , The University of Tokyo, ; Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan
                [2 ]GRID grid.440673.2, School of Materials Science and Engineering, , Changzhou University, ; Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213164 China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0658 8800, GRID grid.4827.9, College of Engineering, , Swansea University, Bay Campus, ; Swansea, SA1 8EN UK
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8994 5086, GRID grid.1026.5, School of Natural and Built Environments, , University of South Australia, ; Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 Australia
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3129-2918
                Article
                28959
                10.1038/s41598-018-28959-w
                6048102
                30013209
                34955e7a-fbff-408c-9c5f-de7487e41966
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 3 April 2018
                : 2 July 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS);
                Award ID: P15712
                Award Recipient :
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