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      Capacitation of mouse spermatozoa. II. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation are regulated by a cAMP-dependent pathway.

      Development (Cambridge, England)

      1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, pharmacology, Adenylate Cyclase, metabolism, Animals, Bucladesine, Calcium, Cell Membrane, enzymology, Cyclic AMP, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, Fertilization in Vitro, Immunoblotting, Isoquinolines, Male, Mice, Phosphorylation, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sperm Capacitation, drug effects, Spermatozoa, Sulfonamides, Tyrosine

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          In the accompanying report (Visconti, P.E., Bailey, J.L., Moore, G.D., Pan, D., Olds-Clarke, P. and Kopf, G.S. (1995) Development, 121, 1129-1137) we demonstrated that the tyrosine phosphorylation of a subset of mouse sperm proteins of M(r) 40,000-120,000 was correlated with the capacitation state of the sperm. The mechanism by which protein tyrosine phosphorylation is regulated in sperm during this process is the subject of this report. Cauda epididymal sperm, when incubated in media devoid of NaHCO3, CaCl2 or bovine serum albumin do not display the capacitation-associated increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation of this subset of proteins. This NaHCO3, CaCl2 or bovine serum albumin requirement for protein tyrosine phosphorylation can be completely overcome by the addition of biologically active, but not inactive, cAMP analogues. Addition of the active cAMP analogues to sperm incubated in media devoid of NaHCO3, CaCl2 or bovine serum albumin overcomes the inability of these media to support capacitation, as assessed by the ability of the cells to acquire the pattern B chlortetracycline fluorescence, to undergo the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction and, in some cases, to fertilize metaphase II-arrested eggs in vitro. The effects of the cAMP analogues to enhance protein tyrosine phosphorylation and to promote capacitation appears to be at the level of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), since two specific inhibitors of this enzyme (H-89 and Rp-cAMPS) block the capacitation-dependent increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated in media supporting capacitation. Capacitation, as assessed by the aforementioned endpoints, also appears to be inhibited by H-89 in a concentration-dependent manner. These results provide further evidence for the interrelationship between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the appearance of the capacitated state in mouse sperm. They also demonstrate that both protein tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation appear to be regulated by cAMP/PKA. Up-regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation by cAMP/PKA in sperm is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of such an interrelationship between tyrosine kinase/phosphatase and PKA signaling pathways.

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