25 December 2017
comorbidities, HFpEF, murine model, AAC, ascending aortic constriction, BNP, brain natriuretic peptide, DOCA, deoxycorticosterone acetate, EF, ejection fraction, HF, heart failure, HFpEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, LV, left ventricular, NaCl, sodium chloride, SAMP, spontaneous senescence prone, SAMR, spontaneous senescence resistant, SHR, spontaneously hypertensive rat, TAC, transverse aortic constriction, ZSF1, Zucker fatty and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rat
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by signs and symptoms of heart failure in the presence of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Despite accounting for up to 50% of all clinical presentations of heart failure, the mechanisms implicated in HFpEF are poorly understood, thus precluding effective therapy. The pathophysiological heterogeneity in the HFpEF phenotype also contributes to this disease and likely to the absence of evidence-based therapies. Limited access to human samples and imperfect animal models that completely recapitulate the human HFpEF phenotype have impeded our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings that exist in this disease. Aging and comorbidities such as atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes and obesity, pulmonary hypertension, and renal dysfunction are highly associated with HFpEF, yet the relationship and contribution between them remains ill-defined. This review discusses some of the distinctive clinical features of HFpEF in association with these comorbidities and highlights the advantages and disadvantage of commonly used murine models used to study the HFpEF phenotype.