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      Genome-Wide Analysis of Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion ( MATE) Family in Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum and Its Expression Analysis Under Salt, Cadmium, and Drought Stress

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          The extrusion of toxins and substances at a cellular level is a vital life process in plants under abiotic stress. The multidrug and toxic compound extrusion ( MATE) gene family plays a large role in the exportation of toxins and other substrates. We carried out a genome-wide analysis of MATE gene families in Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum and assessed their expression levels under salt, cadmium and drought stresses. We identified 70 and 68 MATE genes in G. raimondii and G. arboreum, respectively. The majority of the genes were predicted to be localized within the plasma membrane, with some distributed in other cell parts. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the genes were subdivided into three subfamilies, designated as M1, M2 and M3. Closely related members shared similar gene structures, and thus were highly conserved in nature and have mainly evolved through purifying selection. The genes were distributed in all chromosomes. Twenty-nine gene duplication events were detected, with segmental being the dominant type. GO annotation revealed a link to salt, drought and cadmium stresses. The genes exhibited differential expression, with GrMATE18, GrMATE34, GaMATE41 and GaMATE51 significantly upregulated under drought, salt and cadmium stress, and these could possibly be the candidate genes. Our results provide the first data on the genome-wide and functional characterization of MATE genes in diploid cotton, and are important for breeders of more stress-tolerant cotton genotypes.

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          Most cited references 76

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            Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together.

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            Salinity tolerance comes from genes that limit the rate of salt uptake from the soil and the transport of salt throughout the plant, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots, and regulate leaf development and the onset of senescence. This review lists some candidate genes for salinity tolerance, and draws together hypotheses about the functions of these genes and the specific tissues in which they might operate. Little has been revealed by gene expression studies so far, perhaps because the studies are not tissue-specific, and because the treatments are often traumatic and unnatural. Suggestions are made to increase the value of molecular studies in identifying genes that are important for salinity tolerance.
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              Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism.

              The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles.

                Author and article information

                G3 (Bethesda)
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                24 May 2018
                July 2018
                : 8
                : 7
                : 2483-2500
                [* ]Research Base in Anyang Institute of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology/Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Anyang 455000, Henan, China
                []School of Physical and Biological Sciences, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, 40601 Bondo, Kenya
                []Biological and Food Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000, Henan, China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [2 ]Corresponding authors: Research Base in Anyang Institute of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology/Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Anyang 455000, Henan, China. E-mail: wkbcri@ 123456163.com ; and liufcri@ 123456163.com
                Copyright © 2018 Lu et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 97, Pages: 18
                Genomic Selection


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