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      Redescription of Nothobranchius lucius and description of a new species from Mafia Island, eastern Tanzania (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae)

      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Examination of specimens listed in the original description of Nothobranchius lucius revealed that they belong to two species. Nothobranchius lucius is redescribed based on the type series and other specimens collected in the type locality area, the Kibasira Swamp area, Rufiji River basin, Tanzania, at elevations between 250 and 300 m. Nothobranchius insularis sp. n. is described on the basis of specimens collected in the north part of Mafia Island, Tanzania, at about 10–15 m elevation. Nothobranchius lucius and N. insularis are considered closely related species based on the shared presence of long jaws; caudal fin, in males, with a broad dark grey to black band on its posterior margin; black dots over the whole flank, in females; metapterygoid curved, with its middle and dorsal portions separated from the sympletic by a broad interspace; and posterior process of the quadrate shorter than the ventral length of the quadrate without process. Characters useful to distinguish them include premaxillary dentition, caudal fin shape, colour pattern of flank and unpaired fins in females, fin length, and number of neuromasts of the posterior section of the anterior supraorbital series. Both species are members of a group that also includes N. elongatus, N. hengstleri, N. interruptus, N. jubbi, N. krammeri, and N. melanospilus, which are all diagnosed by the presence of two neuromasts in the anterior section of the anterior supraorbital series.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Populations, Genetic Variation, and the Delimitation of Phylogenetic Species

           K C Nixon,  J I Davis (1992)
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            A platform for rapid exploration of aging and diseases in a naturally short-lived vertebrate.

            Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here, we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally short-lived African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de-novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We mutate many genes encompassing the hallmarks of aging, and for a subset, we produce stable lines within 2-3 months. As a proof of principle, we show that fish deficient for the protein subunit of telomerase exhibit the fastest onset of telomere-related pathologies among vertebrates. We further demonstrate the feasibility of creating specific genetic variants. This genome-to-phenotype platform represents a unique resource for studying vertebrate aging and disease in a high-throughput manner and for investigating candidates arising from human genome-wide studies.
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              Annual fishes of the genus Nothobranchius as a model system for aging research.

              Aging research in vertebrates is hampered by the lack of short-lived models. Annual fishes of the genus Nothobranchius live in East African seasonal ponds. Their life expectancy in the wild is limited by the duration of the wet season and their lifespan in captivity is also short. Nothobranchius are popular aquarium fishes and many different species are kept as captive strains, providing rich material for comparative studies. The present paper aims at reviving the interest in these fishes by reporting that: (1) Nothobranchius can be cultured, and their eggs stored dry at room temperature for months or years, offering inexpensive methods of embryo storage; (2) Nothobranchius show accelerated growth and expression of aging biomarkers at the level of histology and behaviour; (3) the species Nothobranchius furzeri has a maximum lifespan of only 3 months and offers the possibility to perform investigations thus far unthinkable in a vertebrate, such as drug screening with life-long pharmacological treatments and experimental evolution; (4) when the lifespan of different species is compared, a general correlation is found between wet season duration in their natural habitat and longevity in captivity; and (5) vertebrate aging-related genes, such as p66Shc and MTP, can be easily isolated in Nothobranchius by homology cloning. These fishes can become excellent models for aging studies. They can be employed to test the effects of experimental manipulation on aging at a pace comparable with that of Drosophila and to probe the effects of natural selection on the evolution of aging-related genes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                January 16 2017
                January 16 2017
                : 93
                : 1
                : 35-44
                Article
                10.3897/zse.93.11041
                © 2017

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