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      CARACTERIZACIÓN ECOLÓGICA Y FITOQUÍMICA DE LA BATATILLA IPOMOEA PURPUREA L. ROTH (SOLANALES, CONVOLVULACEAE) EN EL MUNICIPIO DE MANIZALES Translated title: ECOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TALL MORNING GLORY IPOMOEA PURPUREA L. ROTH, ORDER: (SOLANALES, FAMILY: CONVOLVULACEAE) MANIZALES - COLOMBIA

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          Abstract

          Con el propósito de realizar una caracterización ecológica (insectos asociados, flora acompañante), fitoquímica (sustancias presentes en semillas) y la realización de ensayos preliminares del efecto biocida del extracto de las semillas de batatilla (Ipomoea purpurea L. Roth), se seleccionaron dos agroecosistemas en el municipio de Manizales (veredas Bajo Tablazo y Aguabonita). Se ubicaron focos silvestres de la planta y se establecieron parcelas de observación con plantas obtenidas de un germinador para caracterizar, a través de su ciclo de vida, su interacción con el ecosistema cafetero. Se realizó un análisis bromatológico de las semillas para identificar sus compuestos fitoquímicos. Se realizó extracción de sus componentes alcaloides a nivel de laboratorio y se probó su utilidad agrícola preliminar mediante aplicaciones sobre un insecto de interés agronómico, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (picudo negro del plátano), bajo condiciones controladas. Se pudo determinar que las arvenses acompañantes más representativas son plantas dicotiledóneas que pertenecen a la familia Asteraceae. Los insectos asociados más representativos fueron en su mayoría hemípteros y coleópteros y destacándose insectos de las familias Thripidae, Staphylinidae, Acrididae, Chrysomelidae, Cicadellidae y Noctuidae. Los grandes contenidos de metales pesados Hierro, Zinc, Manganeso y Cobre, arrojados por el análisis bromatológico sugieren una posible detoxificación del suelo al acumular estos compuestos en las semillas de Ipomoea purpurea L. Roth. La efectividad del extracto sobre la plaga (picudo negro), y los cambios de comportamiento, definieron la utilidad biocida de las sustancias contenidas en las semillas de Ipomoea purpurea, planta considerada agresiva y con pocas utilidades reportadas.

          Translated abstract

          With the purpose of carrying out an ecological characterization (associated insects and accompanying flora), a phytochemical evaluation (substances present in seeds) and preliminary testing of biocidal effect,of Tall Morning Glory (Ipomoea purpurea) seeds extract, two agroecosystems (El tablazo and Agua Bonita Districts) located in the municipality of Manizales were selected. Wild areas of Ipomoea purpurea were established and observation plots of land with plants obtained from a seed germinator were established to characterize, through their lifecycle, their interaction with the coffee-growing ecosystem. Seed bromatological analyses were carried out to identify their phytochemical compounds. Extractions of the alkaloids was performed in a controlled manner in the lab, and their preliminary agricultural use was proved on Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (black weevils in plantain), an agronomic interest insect It was determined that the most representative accompanying weeds near Ipomoea purpurea are dicotyledonous plants belonging to the Asteraceae family. The most representative associated insects were Hemiptera and coleopterae, being highlighted Thripidae Staphylinidae, Acrididae, Chrysomelidae, Cicadellidae and Noctuidae families. The high contents of heavy metals, iron, zinc, manganese and copper left by the bromatological analisys suggest a soil detoxification by accumulation of those compounds in Ipomoea purpurea L. Roth seeds. The effectiveness of the extract and the behaviour changes on the plague (black weevils in plantain) defined the biocidal utility of substances contained in the Ipomoea purpurea seeds, a plant which is considered aggressive with few reported utilities.

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          Analysis of a chalcone synthase mutant in Ipomoea purpurea reveals a novel function for flavonoids: amelioration of heat stress.

          Flavonoids are thought to function in the plant stress response and male fertility in some, but not all, species. We examined the effects of a self-fertile chalcone synthase null allele, a, for the effects of heat and light stress on fertilization success and flower production in Ipomoea purpurea. Pollen recipients and pollen donors of both homozygous genotypes exhibit reduced fertilization success at high temperatures, indicating that high temperature acts as a stress-lowering fertilization success. Homozygous aa individuals exhibit reduced male and female fertilization success, compared to AA individuals, at high temperatures but not at low temperatures. In addition, aa individuals produce fewer flowers than AA individuals at low temperatures, but not at high temperatures. These results suggest that flavonoids alleviate heat stress on fertilization success. They also suggest that pleiotropic effects at the A locus may explain the low frequency of the a allele in natural populations.
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            Floral nectaries, nectar production dynamics and chemical composition in six ipomoea species (convolvulaceae) in relation to pollinators.

            Floral nectaries and nectar features were compared between six Argentinian Ipomoea species with differences in their pollinator guilds: I. alba, I. rubriflora, I. cairica, I. hieronymi var. hieronymi, I. indica, and I. purpurea. Pollinators were recorded in natural populations. The morpho-anatomical study was carried out through scanning electron and light microscopy. Nectar sugars were identified via gas chromatography. Nectar production and the effect of its removal on total nectar sugar amount were determined by using sets of bagged flowers. Hymenopterans were visitors of most species, while hummingbirds visited I. rubriflora and sphingids I. alba. All the species had a vascularized discoidal nectary surrounding the ovary base with numerous open stomata with a species-specific distribution. All nectar samples contained amino acids and sugars. Most species had sucrose-dominant nectars. Flowers lasted a few hours. Mean nectar sugar concentration throughout the lifetime of the flower ranged from 34.28 to 39.42 %, except for I. cairica (49.25 %) and I. rubriflora (25.18 %). Ipomoea alba had the highest nectar volume secreted per flower (50.12 microL), while in the other taxa it ranged from 2.42 to 12.00 microL. Nectar secretion began as soon as the flowers opened and lasted for a few hours (in I. purpurea, I. rubriflora) or it was continuous during the lifetime of the flower (in the remaining species). There was an increase of total sugar production after removals in I. cairica, I. indica and I. purpurea, whereas in I. alba and I. rubriflora removals had no effect, and in I. hieronymi there was a decrease in total sugar production. The chemical composition, production dynamics and removal effects of nectar could not be related to the pollinator guild of these species. Flower length was correlated with nectary size and total volume of nectar secreted, suggesting that structural constraints may play a major role in the determination of nectar traits of these species.
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              The Evolution of Resistance to Herbivory in Ipomoea purpurea. I. Attempts to Detect Selection

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bccm
                Boletín Científico. Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural
                Bol. Cient. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Caldas
                Universidad de Caldas. Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones y Postgrados (Manizales, Caldas, Colombia )
                0123-3068
                December 2011
                : 15
                : 2
                : 19-39
                Affiliations
                [02] orgnameUniversidad de Caldas elmercr@ 123456ucaldas.edu.co
                [01] orgnameUniversidad de Caldas
                Article
                S0123-30682011000200002 S0123-3068(11)01500202
                34bf1796-95da-4328-b5fc-0c7d5405ac19

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 21
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)
                Categories
                Botánica

                Ipomoea purpurea phytochemistry,arvenses acompañantes de I. purpurea,insectos asociados a I. purpurea,fitoquímica de I. purpurea,accompanying Ipomoea purpurea weeds,associated Ipomoea purpurea insects

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