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      Both Nitric Oxide and Endothelin-1 Influence Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity at Rest and after Hyper- and Hypocapnic Stimuli in Hypertensive and Healthy Adolescents


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          Background and Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO)/endothelin imbalance may play a role in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. The aim of the present study was to assess whether these endothelial factors influence middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities (MCAV) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in healthy and hypertensive adolescents. Subjects and Methods: 106 adolescents (61 hypertensive and 45 normotensive) underwent transcranial Doppler measurements of the middle cerebral artery at rest and after 30 s of breath-holding (BH) and 60 s of hyperventilation (HV). Additionally, NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations of the serum were assessed. The correlation between NO and ET-1 levels as well as MCAV and CVR values was analyzed. Results: Resting MCAVs were higher among hypertensive teenagers (76.5 ± 24 vs. 62.8 ± 15.6 cm/s, respectively, p < 0.001). CVR values did not differ between hypertensive and healthy adolescents after the BH and HV procedure. A significant negative correlation was found between absolute MCAV values and NO concentrations. ET-1 was positively related to MCAV. Conclusions: Cerebral blood flow velocities, but not CVR values, are associated with serum NO and ET-1 concentrations in adolescents.

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          Most cited references19

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          Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the regulation of blood pressure.

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            Rates and determinants of site-specific progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness: the carotid atherosclerosis progression study.

            Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) progression rates are increasingly used as an intermediate outcome for vascular risk. The carotid bifurcation (BIF) and internal carotid artery (ICA) are predilection sites for atherosclerosis. IMT measures from these sites may be a better estimate of atherosclerosis than common carotid artery (CCA) IMT. The study aim was to evaluate site-specific IMT progression rates and their relationships to vascular risk factors compared with baseline IMT measurements. In a community population (n=3383), ICA-IMT, BIF-IMT, CCA-IMT, and vascular risk factors were evaluated at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Mean (SD) IMT progression was significantly greater at the ICA (0.032 [0.109] mm/year) compared with the BIF (0.023 [0.108] mm/year) and the CCA (0.001 [0.040] mm/year) (P<0.001). Only ICA-IMT progression significantly correlated with baseline vascular risk factors (age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking). Change in risk factor profile over follow-up, estimated using the Framingham risk score, was a predictor of IMT progression only. For all arterial sites, correlations were stronger, by a factor of 2 to 3, for associations with baseline IMT compared with IMT progression. Progression rates at the ICA rather than the CCA yield greater absolute changes in IMT and better correlations with vascular risk factors. Vascular risk factors correlate more strongly with baseline IMT than with IMT progression. Prospective data on IMT progression and incident vascular events are required to establish the true value of progression data as a surrogate measure of vascular risk.
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              Nitroso-redox balance in the cardiovascular system.


                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                October 2006
                06 October 2006
                : 29
                : 3
                : 152-158
                aFirst Department of Medicine, bDepartment of Neurology, and cDepartment of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Health and Medical Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
                95348 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:152–158
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 04 July 2006
                : 17 December 2006
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/95348
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/95348
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Adolescent hypertension,Endothelin,Cerebral blood flow,Nitric oxide


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