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      Immediate effect of pulsed high-intensity neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser on staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa growth: an experimental study

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          Abstract

          [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed high intensity neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser on staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacterial growth, which cause many health problems and establish which doses are effective in bacterial inhibition. [Materials and Methods] Five samples of S. aureus and five samples of P. aeruginosa were prepared in the microbiology lab, one used as control sample and the other 4 samples acted as experimental samples. The experimental samples received pulsed high intensity Nd: YAG laser with a total dose of 500, 600, 700 and 800 joules. The primary measures are colony count and the percentage decrease in colony count, the colony count was assessed at baseline and after 24 h of laser application. [Result] There was significant decrease in colony count and the percentage decrease in colony count after pulsed high intensity Nd: YAG laser application in all experimental samples of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa after 24 h of application for all doses (500, 600, 700 and 800 j) as compared with the control sample, with the most effect in higher doses of pulsed high intensity Nd: YAG laser than lower doses in both types of bacteria. [Conclusion] pulsed high intensity Nd: YAG laser was found to be an effective modality for inhibition of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa growth after a single application.

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          Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials

          Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful clues for the improvement and optimization of chemotherapy in order to appropriately treat pseudomonal infections while minimizing the emergence of resistance.
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            Staphylococcus aureus chronic and relapsing infections: Evidence of a role for persister cells: An investigation of persister cells, their formation and their role in S. aureus disease.

             Brian Conlon (2014)
            Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing a variety of diseases including osteomyelitis, endocarditis, infections of indwelling devices and wound infections. These infections are often chronic and highly recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. Persister cells appear to be central to this recalcitrance. A multitude of factors contribute to S. aureus virulence and high levels of treatment failure. These include its ability to colonize the skin and nares of the host, its ability to evade the host immune system and its development of resistance to a variety of antibiotics. Less understood is the phenomenon of persister cells and their role in S. aureus infections and treatment outcome. Persister cells occur as a sub-population of phenotypic variants that are tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This review examines the importance of persisters in chronic and relapsing S. aureus infections and proposes methods for their eradication.
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              Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Phys Ther Sci
                J Phys Ther Sci
                JPTS
                Journal of Physical Therapy Science
                The Society of Physical Therapy Science
                0915-5287
                2187-5626
                26 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 31
                : 11
                : 925-930
                Affiliations
                [1) ] Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm AlQura University: PO Box 715, Postal Code 21421, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
                [2) ] Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt
                [3) ] Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm AlQura University, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Anwar Abdelgayed Ebid (E-mail: aaebeed@ 123456uqu.edu.sa ; anwarandsafa@ 123456yahoo.com )
                Article
                jpts-2019-124
                10.1589/jpts.31.925
                6879417
                2019©by the Society of Physical Therapy Science. Published by IPEC Inc.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License. (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ )

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