Blog
About

11
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Application of Bioluminescence Imaging for In Vivo Monitoring of Fungal Infections

      *

      International Journal of Microbiology

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Fungi can cause severe invasive infections especially in the immunocompromised host. Patient populations at risk are increasing due to ongoing developments in cancer treatment and transplantation medicine. Only limited diagnostic tools and few antifungals are available, rendering a significant number of invasive fungal infections life threatening. To reduce mortality rates, a better understanding of the infection processes is urgently required. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful tool for such purposes, since it allows visualisation of temporal and spatial progression of infections in real time. BLI has been successfully used to monitor infections caused by various microorganisms, in particular bacteria. However, first studies have also been performed on the fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Although BLI was, in principle, suitable to study the infection process, some limitations remained. Here, different luciferase systems are introduced, and current approaches are summarised. Finally, suggestions for further improvements of BLI to monitor fungal infections are provided.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 72

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Codon-optimized Gaussia luciferase cDNA for mammalian gene expression in culture and in vivo.

          Photoproteins have played a major role in advancing our understanding of biological processes. A broader array of biocompatible, nontoxic, and novel reporters can serve to expand this potential. Here we describe the properties of a luciferase from the copepod marine organism Gaussia princeps. It is a monomeric protein composed of 185 aa (19.9 kDa) with a short coding sequence (555 bp) making it suitable for viral vectors. The humanized form of Gaussia luciferase (hGLuc) was efficiently expressed in mammalian cells following delivery by HSV-1 amplicon vectors. It was found to be nontoxic and naturally secreted, with flash bioluminescence characteristics similar to those of other coelenterazine luciferases. hGLuc generated over 1000-fold higher bioluminescent signal intensity from live cells together with their immediate environment and over 100-fold higher intensity from viable cells alone (not including secreted luciferase) or cell lysates, compared to humanized forms of firefly (hFLuc) and Renilla (hRLuc) luciferases expressed under similar conditions. Furthermore, hGLuc showed 200-fold higher signal intensity than hRLuc and intensity comparable to that of hFLuc in vivo under standard imaging conditions. Gaussia luciferase provides a sensitive means of imaging gene delivery and other events in living cells in culture and in vivo, with a unique combination of features including high signal intensity, secretion, and ATP independence, thus being able to report from the cells and their environment in real time.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Photonic detection of bacterial pathogens in living hosts.

            The study of pathogenic processes is often limited to ex vivo assays and cell-culture correlates. A greater understanding of infectious diseases would be facilitated by in vivo analyses. Therefore, we have developed a method for detecting bacterial pathogens in a living host and used this method to evaluate disease processes for strains of Salmonella typhimurlum that differ in their virulence for mice. Three strains of Salmonella were marked with bioluminescence through transformation with a plasmid conferring constitutive expression of bacterial luciferase. Detection of photons transmitted through tissues of animals infected with bioluminescent Salmonella allowed localization of the bacteria to specific tissues. In this manner progressive infections were distinguished from those that were persistent or abortive. We observed patterns of bioluminescence that suggested the caecum may play a pivotal role in Salmonella pathogenesis. In vivo efficacy of an antibiotic was monitored using this optical method. This study demonstrates that real time non-invasive analyses of pathogenic events and pharmacological monitoring can be performed in vivo.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Optimisation of Bioluminescent Reporters for Use with Mycobacteria

              Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, still represents a major public health threat in many countries. Bioluminescence, the production of light by luciferase-catalyzed reactions, is a versatile reporter technology with multiple applications both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) represents one of its most outstanding uses by allowing the non-invasive localization of luciferase-expressing cells within a live animal. Despite the extensive use of luminescent reporters in mycobacteria, the resultant luminescent strains have not been fully applied to BLI. Methodology/Principal Findings One of the main obstacles to the use of bioluminescence for in vivo imaging is the achievement of reporter protein expression levels high enough to obtain a signal that can be detected externally. Therefore, as a first step in the application of this technology to the study of mycobacterial infection in vivo, we have optimised the use of firefly, Gaussia and bacterial luciferases in mycobacteria using a combination of vectors, promoters, and codon-optimised genes. We report for the first time the functional expression of the whole bacterial lux operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmatis thus allowing the development of auto-luminescent mycobacteria. We demonstrate that the Gaussia luciferase is secreted from bacterial cells and that this secretion does not require a signal sequence. Finally we prove that the signal produced by recombinant mycobacteria expressing either the firefly or bacterial luciferases can be non-invasively detected in the lungs of infected mice by bioluminescence imaging. Conclusions/Significance While much work remains to be done, the finding that both firefly and bacterial luciferases can be detected non-invasively in live mice is an important first step to using these reporters to study the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species in vivo. Furthermore, the development of auto-luminescent mycobacteria has enormous ramifications for high throughput mycobacterial drug screening assays which are currently carried out either in a destructive manner using LuxAB or the firefly luciferase.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Microbiol
                IJMB
                International Journal of Microbiology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-918X
                1687-9198
                2012
                27 October 2011
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Beutenbergstr. 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Nir Osherov

                10.1155/2012/956794
                3205719
                22121368
                Copyright © 2012 Matthias Brock.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Microbiology & Virology

                Comments

                Comment on this article