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      Hereditary gynaecologic cancers in Nepal: a proposed model of care to serve high risk populations in developing countries


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          Endometrial, ovarian and breast cancers are paradigms for global health disparity. Women living in the developing world continue to present in later stages of disease and have fewer options for treatment than those in developed countries. Risk reducing surgery is of proven benefit for women at high risk of gynaecological cancer. There is no specific model for identification and management of such women in the developing world.


          We have integrated data from our published audit of a major gynaecological oncology centre at Royal Hospital for Women in Australia, with data from our survey and a focus group discussion of Nepalese gynaecological health care professionals regarding genetic testing, and findings from the literature. These data have been used to identify current barriers to multidisciplinary gynaecological oncology care in developing nations, and to develop a model to integrate hereditary cancer services into cancer care in Nepal, as a paradigm for other developing nations.


          The ability to identify women with hereditary gynaecological cancer in developing nations is influenced by their late presentation (if active management is declined or not appropriate), limited access to specialised services and cultural and financial barriers. In order to include genetic assessment in multidisciplinary gynaecological cancer care, education needs to be provided to all levels of health care providers to enable reporting of family history, and appropriate ordering of investigations. Training of genetic counsellors is needed to assist in the interpretation of results and extending care to unaffected at-risk relatives. Novel approaches will be required to overcome geographic and financial barriers, including mainstreaming of genetic testing, telephone counselling, use of mouth swabs and utilisation of international laboratories.


          Women in Nepal have yet to receive benefits from the advances in early cancer diagnosis and management. There is a potential of extending the benefits of hereditary cancer diagnosis in Nepal due to the rapid fall in the cost of genetic testing and the ability to collect DNA from a buccal swab through appropriate training of the gynaecological carers.

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          Cancer risks associated with germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes in Lynch syndrome.

          Providing accurate estimates of cancer risks is a major challenge in the clinical management of Lynch syndrome. To estimate the age-specific cumulative risks of developing various tumors using a large series of families with mutations of the MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes. Families with Lynch syndrome enrolled between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, from 40 French cancer genetics clinics participating in the ERISCAM (Estimation des Risques de Cancer chez les porteurs de mutation des gènes MMR) study; 537 families with segregating mutated genes (248 with MLH1; 256 with MSH2; and 33 with MSH6) were analyzed. Age-specific cumulative cancer risks estimated using the genotype restricted likelihood (GRL) method accounting for ascertainment bias. Significant differences in estimated cumulative cancer risk were found between the 3 mutated genes (P = .01). The estimated cumulative risks of colorectal cancer by age 70 years were 41% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 25%-70%) for MLH1 mutation carriers, 48% (95% CI, 30%-77%) for MSH2, and 12% (95% CI, 8%-22%) for MSH6. For endometrial cancer, corresponding risks were 54% (95% CI, 20%-80%), 21% (95% CI, 8%-77%), and 16% (95% CI, 8%-32%). For ovarian cancer, they were 20% (95% CI, 1%-65%), 24% (95% CI, 3%-52%), and 1% (95% CI, 0%-3%). The estimated cumulative risks by age 40 years did not exceed 2% (95% CI, 0%-7%) for endometrial cancer nor 1% (95% CI, 0%-3%) for ovarian cancer, irrespective of the gene. The estimated lifetime risks for other tumor types did not exceed 3% with any of the gene mutations. MSH6 mutations are associated with markedly lower cancer risks than MLH1 or MSH2 mutations. Lifetime ovarian and endometrial cancer risks associated with MLH1 or MSH2 mutations were high but do not increase appreciably until after the age of 40 years.
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            Prophylactic surgery to reduce the risk of gynecologic cancers in the Lynch syndrome.

            Women with the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) have a 40 to 60 percent lifetime risk of endometrial cancer and a 10 to 12 percent lifetime risk of ovarian cancer. The benefit of prophylactic gynecologic surgery for women with this syndrome has been uncertain. We designed this study to determine the reduction in the risk of gynecologic cancers associated with prophylactic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in women with the Lynch syndrome. Three hundred fifteen women with documented germ-line mutations associated with the Lynch syndrome were identified. Women who had undergone prophylactic hysterectomy (61 women) and women who had undergone prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (47 women) were matched with mutation-positive women who had not undergone the procedure in question (210 women for the analysis of endometrial cancer and 223 for the analysis of ovarian cancer). Women who had undergone prophylactic surgery and their matched controls were followed from the date of the surgery until the occurrence of cancer or until the data were censored at the time of the last follow-up visit. There were no occurrences of endometrial, ovarian, or primary peritoneal cancer among the women who had undergone prophylactic surgery. Endometrial cancer was diagnosed in 69 women in the control group (33 percent), for an incidence density of 0.045 per woman-year, yielding a prevented fraction (the proportion of potential new cancers prevented) of 100 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 90 to 100 percent). Ovarian cancer was diagnosed in 12 women in the control group (5 percent), for an incidence density of 0.005 per woman-year, yielding a prevented fraction of 100 percent (95 percent confidence interval, -62 to 100 percent). These findings suggest that prophylactic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is an effective strategy for preventing endometrial and ovarian cancer in women with the Lynch syndrome. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              The clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome due to germ-line PMS2 mutations.

              Although the clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome (also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) has been well described, little is known about disease in PMS2 mutation carriers. Now that mutation detection methods can discern mutations in PMS2 from mutations in its pseudogenes, more mutation carriers have been identified. Information about the clinical significance of PMS2 mutations is crucial for appropriate counseling. Here, we report the clinical characteristics of a large series of PMS2 mutation carriers. We performed PMS2 mutation analysis using long-range polymerase chain reaction and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for 99 probands diagnosed with Lynch syndrome-associated tumors showing isolated loss of PMS2 by immunohistochemistry. Penetrance was calculated using a modified segregation analysis adjusting for ascertainment. Germ-line PMS2 mutations were detected in 62% of probands (n = 55 monoallelic; 6 biallelic). Among families with monoallelic PMS2 mutations, 65.5% met revised Bethesda guidelines. Compared with the general population, in mutation carriers, the incidence of colorectal cancer was 5.2-fold higher, and the incidence of endometrial cancer was 7.5-fold higher. In North America, this translates to a cumulative cancer risk to age 70 years of 15%-20% for colorectal cancer, 15% for endometrial cancer, and 25%-32% for any Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. No elevated risk for non-Lynch syndrome-associated cancers was observed. PMS2 mutations contribute significantly to Lynch syndrome, but the penetrance for monoallelic mutation carriers appears to be lower than that for the other mismatch repair genes. Modified counseling and cancer surveillance guidelines for PMS2 mutation carriers are proposed.

                Author and article information

                Hered Cancer Clin Pract
                Hered Cancer Clin Pract
                Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
                BioMed Central (London )
                18 September 2017
                18 September 2017
                : 15
                : 12
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0640 3740, GRID grid.416139.8, Gynaecologic Cancer Centre, Royal Hospital for Women, ; Sydney, Australia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, School of Women’s and Children’s Health, , UNSW, ; Sydney, Australia
                [3 ]GRID grid.415193.b, Hereditary Cancer Clinic, Prince of Wales Hospital, ; Sydney, Australia
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1794 1501, GRID grid.414128.a, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, , B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, ; Dharan, Nepal
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 4902 0432, GRID grid.1005.4, School of Medicine, , UNSW, ; Sydney, Australia
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 6 May 2017
                : 5 September 2017
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                nepal,hereditary cancer,brca,lynch syndrome
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                nepal, hereditary cancer, brca, lynch syndrome


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