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      Mapping ecosystem services for policy support and decision making in the European Union

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          Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales

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            Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes.

            A key challenge of ecosystem management is determining how to manage multiple ecosystem services across landscapes. Enhancing important provisioning ecosystem services, such as food and timber, often leads to tradeoffs between regulating and cultural ecosystem services, such as nutrient cycling, flood protection, and tourism. We developed a framework for analyzing the provision of multiple ecosystem services across landscapes and present an empirical demonstration of ecosystem service bundles, sets of services that appear together repeatedly. Ecosystem service bundles were identified by analyzing the spatial patterns of 12 ecosystem services in a mixed-use landscape consisting of 137 municipalities in Quebec, Canada. We identified six types of ecosystem service bundles and were able to link these bundles to areas on the landscape characterized by distinct social-ecological dynamics. Our results show landscape-scale tradeoffs between provisioning and almost all regulating and cultural ecosystem services, and they show that a greater diversity of ecosystem services is positively correlated with the provision of regulating ecosystem services. Ecosystem service-bundle analysis can identify areas on a landscape where ecosystem management has produced exceptionally desirable or undesirable sets of ecosystem services.
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              Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe.

              Global change will alter the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. To investigate ecosystem service supply during the 21st century, we used a range of ecosystem models and scenarios of climate and land-use change to conduct a Europe-wide assessment. Large changes in climate and land use typically resulted in large changes in ecosystem service supply. Some of these trends may be positive (for example, increases in forest area and productivity) or offer opportunities (for example, "surplus land" for agricultural extensification and bioenergy production). However, many changes increase vulnerability as a result of a decreasing supply of ecosystem services (for example, declining soil fertility, declining water availability, increasing risk of forest fires), especially in the Mediterranean and mountain regions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ecosystem Services
                Ecosystem Services
                Elsevier BV
                22120416
                July 2012
                July 2012
                : 1
                : 1
                : 31-39
                Article
                10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.06.004
                34f0aadd-482b-4ef6-a2b1-0a27e73db55b
                © 2012

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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