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      Effects of the Sequence of Isocaloric Meals with Different Protein Contents on Plasma Biochemical Indexes in Pigs

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          Abstract

          Nutrient composition and pattern of food intake may play a significant role in weight gain. The aim of this study was to document the effects of a daily 3-meal pattern with isocaloric diets containing different dietary protein contents on growth performance and different plasma biochemical indexes including amino acid plasma concentration in castrated male pigs. Then, 21 DLY (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) pigs aged 60 days were assigned randomly into 3 groups: a control group (crude protein, CP 18.1%), a group receiving high then basal and then low CP meals (High-Low group) and a group receiving low then basal and then high CP meal (Low-High group) for 40 days with pigs being feed-restricted. On day 40, after 12 h fasting, blood samples were obtained for analysis. The results showed that the insulin/glucagon ratio was lower in the High-Low group (P<0.05) when compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, the average daily gain of pigs from the High-Low group increased by 14.10% (P = 0.046). Compared with the control group, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) decreased significantly (P<0.05) in both the High-Low and Low-High groups. Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA: valine, isoleucine and leucine) increased in the Low-High group (P<0.05) when compared with the control group; and plasma methionine and serine decreased in both the two experimental groups (P<0.05). Compared with the High-Low group, all the BCAA increased significantly (P<0.05) in the Low-High group. These findings suggest that the sequence and quantity of alimentary protein intake affect the insulin/glucagon ratio, as well as amino acid concentrations including BCAA, methionine and serine. It is proposed that meal pattern with pigs receiving high then basal and then low CP meals daily may help to improve the weight gain of pigs.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Disruption of the Clock Components CLOCK and BMAL1 Leads to Hypoinsulinemia and Diabetes

          The molecular clock maintains energy constancy by producing circadian oscillations of rate-limiting enzymes involved in tissue metabolism across the day and night1–3. During periods of feeding, pancreatic islets secrete insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis, and while rhythmic control of insulin release is recognized to be dysregulated in humans with diabetes4, it is not known how the circadian clock may affect this process. Here we show that pancreatic islets possess self-sustained circadian gene and protein oscillations of the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1. The phase of oscillation of islet genes involved in growth, glucose metabolism, and insulin signaling is delayed in circadian mutant mice, and both Clock 5,6 and Bmal1 7 mutants exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, reduced insulin secretion, and defects in size and proliferation of pancreatic islets that worsen with age. Clock disruption leads to transcriptome-wide alterations in the expression of islet genes involved in growth, survival, and synaptic vesicle assembly. Remarkably, conditional ablation of the pancreatic clock causes diabetes mellitus due to defective β-cell function at the very latest stage of stimulus-secretion coupling. These results demonstrate a role for the β-cell clock in coordinating insulin secretion with the sleep-wake cycle, and reveal that ablation of the pancreatic clock can trigger onset of diabetes mellitus.
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            Circadian timing of food intake contributes to weight gain.

            Studies of body weight regulation have focused almost entirely on caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, a number of recent studies in animals linking energy regulation and the circadian clock at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels raise the possibility that the timing of food intake itself may play a significant role in weight gain. The present study focused on the role of the circadian phase of food consumption in weight gain. We provide evidence that nocturnal mice fed a high-fat diet only during the 12-h light phase gain significantly more weight than mice fed only during the 12-h dark phase. A better understanding of the role of the circadian system for weight gain could have important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for combating the obesity epidemic facing the human population today.
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              Metabolism and circadian rhythms--implications for obesity.

               Oren Froy (2010)
              Obesity has become a serious public health problem and a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Human homeostatic systems have adapted to daily changes in light and dark in a way that the body anticipates the sleep and activity periods. Mammals have developed an endogenous circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus that responds to the environmental light-dark cycle. Similar clocks have been found in peripheral tissues, such as the liver, intestine, and adipose tissue, regulating cellular and physiological functions. The circadian clock has been reported to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis in the liver and other peripheral tissues. This is achieved by mediating the expression and/or activity of certain metabolic enzymes and transport systems. In return, key metabolic enzymes and transcription activators interact with and affect the core clock mechanism. In addition, the core clock mechanism has been shown to be linked with lipogenic and adipogenic pathways. Animals with mutations in clock genes that disrupt cellular rhythmicity have provided evidence for the relationship between the circadian clock and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, clinical studies in shift workers and obese patients accentuate the link between the circadian clock and metabolism. This review will focus on the interconnection between the circadian clock and metabolism, with implications for obesity and how the circadian clock is influenced by hormones, nutrients, and timed meals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                21 August 2015
                2015
                : 10
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock, Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, 410125, China
                [2 ]College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, China
                [3 ]School of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 41008, China
                [4 ]INRA/AgroParisTech, UMR 914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, France
                CNRS, University of Strasbourg, FRANCE
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The co-author Francois Blachier is a PLOS ONE Editorial Board member. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE Editorial policies and criteria.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: CX XW YY. Performed the experiments: XW JL ZF CL. Analyzed the data: FB HL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CX XW. Wrote the paper: CX XW HL FB. Helped write the manuscript: PCE.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-37090
                10.1371/journal.pone.0125640
                4546430
                26295708

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                This paper was jointly supported by grants from the NSFC (31110103909), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2012BAD39B00), Chinese Academy of Sciences and Knowledge Innovation Project (CXJQ120113-1), Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative Grant (No. 2015VBA009, 2013T2S0014), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (2014M552022). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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