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      The multiplex model of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease

      , ,
      Nature Neuroscience
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Trial of Solanezumab for Mild Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease

          Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The humanized monoclonal antibody solanezumab was designed to increase the clearance from the brain of soluble Aβ, peptides that may lead to toxic effects in the synapses and precede the deposition of fibrillary amyloid.
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            Genetic identification of brain cell types underlying schizophrenia

            With few exceptions, the marked advances in knowledge about the genetic basis of schizophrenia have not converged on findings that can be confidently used for precise experimental modeling. Applying knowledge of the cellular taxonomy of the brain from single-cell RNA-sequencing, we evaluated whether the genomic loci implicated in schizophrenia map onto specific brain cell types. We found that the common variant genomic results consistently mapped to pyramidal cells, medium spiny neurons, and certain interneurons but far less consistently to embryonic, progenitor, or glial cells. These enrichments were due to sets of genes specifically expressed in each of these cell types. We also found that many of the diverse gene sets previously associated with schizophrenia (synaptic genes, FMRP interactors, antipsychotic targets, etc.) generally implicate the same brain cell types. Our results suggest a parsimonious explanation: the common-variant genetic results for schizophrenia point at a limited set of neurons, and the gene sets point to the same cells. The genetic risk associated with medium spiny neurons did not overlap with that of glutamatergic pyramidal cells and interneurons, suggesting that different cell types have biologically distinct roles in schizophrenia.
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              Polarization of the effects of autoimmune and neurodegenerative risk alleles in leukocytes.

              To extend our understanding of the genetic basis of human immune function and dysfunction, we performed an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) study of purified CD4(+) T cells and monocytes, representing adaptive and innate immunity, in a multi-ethnic cohort of 461 healthy individuals. Context-specific cis- and trans-eQTLs were identified, and cross-population mapping allowed, in some cases, putative functional assignment of candidate causal regulatory variants for disease-associated loci. We note an over-representation of T cell-specific eQTLs among susceptibility alleles for autoimmune diseases and of monocyte-specific eQTLs among Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease variants. This polarization implicates specific immune cell types in these diseases and points to the need to identify the cell-autonomous effects of disease susceptibility variants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Neuroscience
                Nat Neurosci
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1097-6256
                1546-1726
                February 28 2020
                Article
                10.1038/s41593-020-0599-5
                32112059
                3500278e-17d0-450b-af63-bd8f059c5de1
                © 2020

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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