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      Effective EMI shielding behaviour of thin graphene/PMMA nanolaminates in the THz range

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          Abstract

          The use of graphene in a form of discontinuous flakes in polymer composites limits the full exploitation of the unique properties of graphene, thus requiring high filler loadings for achieving- for example- satisfactory electrical and mechanical properties. Herein centimetre-scale CVD graphene/polymer nanolaminates have been produced by using an iterative ‘lift-off/float-on’ process and have been found to outperform, for the same graphene content, state-of-the-art flake-based graphene polymer composites in terms of mechanical reinforcement and electrical properties. Most importantly these thin laminate materials show a high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness, reaching 60 dB for a small thickness of 33 μm, and an absolute EMI shielding effectiveness close to 3·10 5 dB cm 2 g −1 which is amongst the highest values for synthetic, non-metallic materials produced to date.

          Abstract

          The properties of graphene/polymer composites are usually limited by the use of discontinuous graphene flakes. Here, the authors report a fabrication method to realise continuous cm-scale graphene/polymer nanolaminates with enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness, conductivity and mechanical properties.

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          Most cited references68

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          Electromagnetic interference shielding with 2D transition metal carbides (MXenes)

          Materials with good flexibility and high conductivity that can provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding with minimal thickness are highly desirable, especially if they can be easily processed into films. Two-dimensional metal carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, combine metallic conductivity and hydrophilic surfaces. Here, we demonstrate the potential of several MXenes and their polymer composites for EMI shielding. A 45-micrometer-thick Ti3C2Tx film exhibited EMI shielding effectiveness of 92 decibels (>50 decibels for a 2.5-micrometer film), which is the highest among synthetic materials of comparable thickness produced to date. This performance originates from the excellent electrical conductivity of Ti3C2Tx films (4600 Siemens per centimeter) and multiple internal reflections from Ti3C2Tx flakes in free-standing films. The mechanical flexibility and easy coating capability offered by MXenes and their composites enable them to shield surfaces of any shape while providing high EMI shielding efficiency.
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            Graphene-based composite materials.

            Graphene sheets--one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon--are predicted to have a range of unusual properties. Their thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness may rival the remarkable in-plane values for graphite (approximately 3,000 W m(-1) K(-1) and 1,060 GPa, respectively); their fracture strength should be comparable to that of carbon nanotubes for similar types of defects; and recent studies have shown that individual graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic transport properties. One possible route to harnessing these properties for applications would be to incorporate graphene sheets in a composite material. The manufacturing of such composites requires not only that graphene sheets be produced on a sufficient scale but that they also be incorporated, and homogeneously distributed, into various matrices. Graphite, inexpensive and available in large quantity, unfortunately does not readily exfoliate to yield individual graphene sheets. Here we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite and molecular-level dispersion of individual, chemically modified graphene sheets within polymer hosts. A polystyrene-graphene composite formed by this route exhibits a percolation threshold of approximately 0.1 volume per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity, the lowest reported value for any carbon-based composite except for those involving carbon nanotubes; at only 1 volume per cent, this composite has a conductivity of approximately 0.1 S m(-1), sufficient for many electrical applications. Our bottom-up chemical approach of tuning the graphene sheet properties provides a path to a broad new class of graphene-based materials and their use in a variety of applications.
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              Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes.

              Graphene, a two-dimensional monolayer of sp(2)-bonded carbon atoms, has been attracting great interest due to its unique transport properties. One of the promising applications of graphene is as a transparent conductive electrode owing to its high optical transmittance and conductivity. In this paper, we report on an improved transfer process of large-area graphene grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition. The transferred graphene films have high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance that make them suitable for transparent conductive electrode applications. The improved transfer processes will also be of great value for the fabrication of electronic devices such as field effect transistor and bilayer pseudospin field effect transistor devices.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                c.galiotis@iceht.forth.gr
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                2 August 2021
                2 August 2021
                2021
                : 12
                : 4655
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.511963.9, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou St. Platani, ; Patras, Greece
                [2 ]GRID grid.11047.33, ISNI 0000 0004 0576 5395, Department of Chemical Engineering, , University of Patras, ; Patras, Greece
                [3 ]GRID grid.470211.1, INFN Naples Unit, ; Naples, Italy
                [4 ]GRID grid.4691.a, ISNI 0000 0001 0790 385X, Department of Physics “E. Pancini”, , University of Naples “Federico II”, ; Naples, Italy
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7345-161X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5701-5340
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9399-8556
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2779-9900
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0080-9630
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6603-8162
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8079-5488
                Article
                24970
                10.1038/s41467-021-24970-4
                8329220
                34341360
                3500842d-8a48-491c-931c-03d00488cd5b
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 27 October 2020
                : 24 June 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the research project Graphene Core 3, GA: 881603 and National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) under the project “TERA”.
                Categories
                Article
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                Uncategorized
                nanoscale materials,graphene
                Uncategorized
                nanoscale materials, graphene

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