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      The dystrophin glycoprotein complex: signaling strength and integrity for the sarcolemma.

      Circulation Research

      Animals, Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, genetics, therapy, Caveolin 3, Caveolins, physiology, Cricetinae, Cytoskeletal Proteins, chemistry, Dystroglycans, Dystrophin, Genetic Therapy, Humans, Laminin, Macromolecular Substances, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mesocricetus, Mice, Models, Molecular, Muscle, Skeletal, ultrastructure, Muscular Dystrophy, Animal, metabolism, pathology, Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne, Myocardium, Neuropeptides, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I, Protein Conformation, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Sarcolemma, Sarcomeres, Stem Cell Transplantation

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          Abstract

          The dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is a specialization of cardiac and skeletal muscle membrane. This large multicomponent complex has both mechanical stabilizing and signaling roles in mediating interactions between the cytoskeleton, membrane, and extracellular matrix. Dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy locus, links cytoskeletal and membrane elements. Mutations in additional DGC genes, the sarcoglycans, also lead to cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy. Animal models of DGC mutants have shown that destabilization of the DGC leads to membrane fragility and loss of membrane integrity, resulting in degeneration of skeletal muscle and cardiomyocytes. Vascular reactivity is altered in response to primary degeneration in striated myocytes and arises from a vascular smooth muscle cell-extrinsic mechanism.

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          Journal
          15117830
          10.1161/01.RES.0000126574.61061.25

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