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      Impact of structured verbal feedback module in medical education: A questionnaire- and test score-based analysis

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          Feedback is a divalent bond between the supplier (teacher) and the recipient (student). The strength of the bond depends on the instructional design of the feedback. Feedback is central to medical education in promoting self-directed learning in students. In the present study, a structured verbal feedback module was prepared, implemented, and evaluated.


          The study was done on 280 students from four consecutive batches (2011 to 2014) of the 1 st year MBBS students exposed to different types and modes of feedback. Analysis was done using student feedback questionnaire for the perception of students to verbal feedback. Quantitative analysis using post hoc test and ANOVA for the impact of type of feedback (verbal or written) and effect of modes (individual or group) of verbal feedback on test score performance were done.


          In this study, ≥95% of the students preferred verbal feedback of both positive and negative attributes in student questionnaires. It was observed that verbal feedback sessions made a difference of up to 2–2.4 grade points in the mean score of batch when compared to the written feedback. The initial mean test score (T1) of 2011 + 2012 and 2013 + 2014 was not statistically significant ( P = 0.113). But, in all subsequent tests (T2, T3, and T4), there was a statistically significant difference in the mean test scores ( P = 0.000).


          (1) Students prefer verbal one-to-one feedback over written feedback. (2) Verbal feedback changes learning process and causes sustained improvement in learning strategies.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Feedback in clinical medical education.

           J Ende (1983)
          In the setting of clinical medical education, feedback refers to information describing students' or house officers' performance in a given activity that is intended to guide their future performance in that same or in a related activity. It is a key step in the acquisition of clinical skills, yet feedback is often omitted or handled improperly in clinical training. This can result in important untoward consequences, some of which may extend beyond the training period. Once the nature of the feedback process is appreciated, however, especially the distinction between feedback and evaluation and the importance of focusing on the trainees' observable behaviors rather than on the trainees themselves, the educational benefit of feedback can be realized. This article presents guidelines for offering feedback that have been set forth in the literature of business administration, psychology, and education, adapted here for use by teachers and students of clinical medicine.
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            A qualitative study on trainees' and supervisors' perceptions of assessment for learning in postgraduate medical education.

            Recent changes in postgraduate medical training curricula usually encompass a shift towards more formative assessment, or assessment for learning. However, though theoretically well suited to postgraduate training, evidence is emerging that engaging in formative assessment in daily clinical practice is complex.
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              Toward a common understanding of self-assessment.

               Joan Sargeant (2007)
              Self-assessment and its role in self-regulation and lifelong learning lack clarity. A goal of this Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions issue is to begin to clarify our current understanding of self-assessment and what it entails, as seen through an educational lens. The purpose of this summary article is to synthesize briefly the definitions of self-assessment proposed by the authors, their perspectives on external and internal factors influencing and/or inherent in self-assessment, and common messages for educational research and practice. Among the seven authors, there appears to be unanimity in conceptualizing self-assessment within a formative, educational perspective, and seeing it as an activity that draws upon both external and internal data, standards, and resources to inform and make decisions about one's performance. Multiple external sources can and should inform self-assessment, perhaps most important among them performance standards, eg, clinical practice guidelines, and use of formal practice audit and feedback approaches. Equally important, internal factors or capacities also influence one's ability to self-assess and self-monitor, such as reflection, mindfulness, openness, curiosity. In summary, these articles aid in our appreciation of the complexity of self-assessment as a formative activity and identify multiple implications for educational practice and research.

                Author and article information

                Department of Anatomy, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
                [2 ]Department of SPM, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Sonia Singh, Department of Anatomy, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Civil Lines, Ludhiana - 141 001, Punjab, India. E-mail: kharaysonia@
                Int J Appl Basic Med Res
                Int J Appl Basic Med Res
                International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jul-Sep 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                : 220-225
                Copyright: © 2016 International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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