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      Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases

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          Abstract

          Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development.

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          Most cited references182

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          Receptor specificity of the fibroblast growth factor family. The complete mammalian FGF family.

          In mammals, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are encoded by 22 genes. FGFs bind and activate alternatively spliced forms of four tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs 1-4). The spatial and temporal expression patterns of FGFs and FGFRs and the ability of specific ligand-receptor pairs to actively signal are important factors regulating FGF activity in a variety of biological processes. FGF signaling activity is regulated by the binding specificity of ligands and receptors and is modulated by extrinsic cofactors such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In previous studies, we have engineered BaF3 cell lines to express the seven principal FGFRs and used these cell lines to determine the receptor binding specificity of FGFs 1-9 by using relative mitogenic activity as the readout. Here we have extended these semiquantitative studies to assess the receptor binding specificity of the remaining FGFs 10-23. This study completes the mitogenesis-based comparison of receptor specificity of the entire FGF family under standard conditions and should help in interpreting and predicting in vivo biological activity.
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            Modulating Hox gene functions during animal body patterning.

            With their power to shape animal morphology, few genes have captured the imagination of biologists as the evolutionarily conserved members of the Hox clusters have done. Recent research has provided new insight into how Hox proteins cause morphological diversity at the organismal and evolutionary levels. Furthermore, an expanding collection of sequences that are directly regulated by Hox proteins provides information on the specificity of target-gene activation, which might allow the successful prediction of novel Hox-response genes. Finally, the recent discovery of microRNA genes within the Hox gene clusters indicates yet another level of control by Hox genes in development and evolution.
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              Fgf10 is essential for limb and lung formation.

              The interactions between fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors have important roles in mediating mesenchymal-epithelial cell interactions during embryogenesis. In particular, Fgf10 is predicted to function as a regulator of brain, lung and limb development on the basis of its spatiotemporal expression pattern in the developing embryo. To define the role of Fgf10, we generated Fgf10-deficient mice. Fgf10-/- mice died at birth due to the lack of lung development. Trachea was formed, but subsequent pulmonary branching morphogenesis was disrupted. In addition, mutant mice had complete truncation of the fore- and hindlimbs. In Fgf10-/- embryos, limb bud formation was initiated but outgrowth of the limb buds did not occur; however, formation of the clavicles was not affected. Analysis of the expression of marker genes in the mutant limb buds indicated that the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) did not form. Thus, we show here that Fgf10 serves as an essential regulator of lung and limb formation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                12 October 2014
                December 2014
                12 October 2014
                : 1
                : 2
                : 199-213
                Affiliations
                [a ]The Laboratory of Craniofacial Biology, Section of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 6035, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
                [b ]The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 773 702 6302; fax: +1 773 702 1634. rreid@ 123456surgery.bsd.uchicago.edu
                Article
                S2352-3042(14)00029-4
                10.1016/j.gendis.2014.09.005
                4323088
                25679016
                3536915e-cc34-4d6f-8ac1-43f35e84bdfb
                Copyright © 2014, Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

                History
                : 9 September 2014
                : 15 September 2014
                Categories
                Article

                craniosynostosis,fgf signaling,fibroblast growth factor,fibroblast growth factor receptor,genetics,pathogenesis,signal transduction,skeletal development

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