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      Prevention of atherosclerosis by bioactive palmitoleate through suppression of organelle stress and inflammasome activation.

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          De novo lipogenesis (DNL), the conversion of glucose and other substrates to lipids, is often associated with ectopic lipid accumulation, metabolic stress, and insulin resistance, especially in the liver. However, organ-specific DNL can also generate distinct lipids with beneficial metabolic bioactivity, prompting a great interest in their use for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Palmitoleate (PAO), one such bioactive lipid, regulates lipid metabolism in liver and improves glucose utilization in skeletal muscle when it is generated de novo from the obese adipose tissue. We show that PAO treatment evokes an overall lipidomic remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in macrophages and mouse tissues, which is associated with resistance of the ER to hyperlipidemic stress. By preventing ER stress, PAO blocks lipid-induced inflammasome activation in mouse and human macrophages. Chronic PAO supplementation also lowers systemic interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 concentrations in vivo in hyperlipidemic mice. Moreover, PAO prevents macrophage ER stress and IL-1β production in atherosclerotic plaques in vivo, resulting in a marked reduction in plaque macrophages and protection against atherosclerosis in mice. These findings demonstrate that oral supplementation with a product of DNL such as PAO can promote membrane remodeling associated with metabolic resilience of intracellular organelles to lipid stress and limit the progression of atherosclerosis. These findings support therapeutic PAO supplementation as a potential preventive approach against complex metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, which warrants further studies in humans.

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          Most cited references 95

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          Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease.

           R. Ross,  Paul O'Byrne (1999)
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            The inflammasomes.

            Inflammasomes are molecular platforms activated upon cellular infection or stress that trigger the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta to engage innate immune defenses. Strong associations between dysregulated inflammasome activity and human heritable and acquired inflammatory diseases highlight the importance this pathway in tailoring immune responses. Here, we comprehensively review mechanisms directing normal inflammasome function and its dysregulation in disease. Agonists and activation mechanisms of the NLRP1, NLRP3, IPAF, and AIM2 inflammasomes are discussed. Regulatory mechanisms that potentiate or limit inflammasome activation are examined, as well as emerging links between the inflammasome and pyroptosis and autophagy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity.

              The modern rise in obesity and its strong association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have elicited interest in the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies. The discovery that obesity itself results in an inflammatory state in metabolic tissues ushered in a research field that examines the inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Here, we summarize the unique features of this metabolic inflammatory state, termed metaflammation and defined as low-grade, chronic inflammation orchestrated by metabolic cells in response to excess nutrients and energy. We explore the effects of such inflammation in metabolic tissues including adipose, liver, muscle, pancreas, and brain and its contribution to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Another area in which many unknowns still exist is the origin or mechanism of initiation of inflammatory signaling in obesity. We discuss signals or triggers to the inflammatory response, including the possibility of endoplasmic reticulum stress as an important contributor to metaflammation. Finally, we examine anti-inflammatory therapies for their potential in the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.

                Author and article information

                Sci Transl Med
                Science translational medicine
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                Sep 28 2016
                : 8
                : 358
                [1 ] Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey. National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey.
                [2 ] Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey.
                [3 ] Metabolon, Sacramento, CA 95691, USA.
                [4 ] Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases and Sabri Ülker Center, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
                [5 ] Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey. National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey.


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