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      Self-defense of human sarcoma cells against cytolytic lymphoid cells of their host


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          Metastatic human sarcomas temporarily respond to radio-chemotherapy relapse and remain highly resistant to further combination chemotherapy as to a curative effect, including checkpoint control.

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          Boosting Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Targeting of Sarcoma Through DNAM-1 and NKG2D

          Sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin that occur in bone and soft tissues. Many are chemo- and radiotherapy resistant, thus conventional treatments fail to increase overall survival. Natural Killer (NK) cells exert anti-tumor activity upon detection of a complex array of tumor ligands, but this has not been thoroughly explored in the context of sarcoma immunotherapy. In this study, we investigated the NK cell receptor/ligand immune profile of primary human sarcoma explants. Analysis of tumors from 32 sarcoma patients identified the proliferative marker PCNA and DNAM-1 ligands CD112 and/or CD155 as commonly expressed antigens that could be efficiently targeted by genetically modified (GM) NK cells. Despite the strong expression of CD112 and CD155 on sarcoma cells, characterization of freshly dissociated sarcomas revealed a general decrease in tumor-infiltrating NK cells compared to the periphery, suggesting a defect in the endogenous NK cell response. We also applied a functional screening approach to identify relevant NK cell receptor/ligand interactions that induce efficient anti-tumor responses using a panel NK-92 cell lines GM to over-express 12 different activating receptors. Using GM NK-92 cells against primary sarcoma explants (n = 12) revealed that DNAM-1 over-expression on NK-92 cells led to efficient degranulation against all tested explants (n = 12). Additionally, NKG2D over-expression showed enhanced responses against 10 out of 12 explants. These results show that DNAM-1+ or NKG2D+ GM NK-92 cells may be an efficient approach in targeting sarcomas. The degranulation capacity of GM NK-92 cell lines was also tested against various established tumor cell lines, including neuroblastoma, Schwannoma, melanoma, myeloma, leukemia, prostate, pancreatic, colon, and lung cancer. Enhanced degranulation of DNAM-1+ or NKG2D+ GM NK-92 cells was observed against the majority of tumor cell lines tested. In conclusion, DNAM-1 or NKG2D over-expression elicited a dynamic increase in NK cell degranulation against all sarcoma explants and cancer cell lines tested, including those that failed to induce a notable response in WT NK-92 cells. These results support the broad therapeutic potential of DNAM-1+ or NKG2D+ GM NK-92 cells and GM human NK cells for the treatment of sarcomas and other malignancies.
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            The cnidarian origin of the proto-oncogenes NF-κB/STAT and WNT-like oncogenic pathway drives the ctenophores (Review)

            The cell survival pathways of the diploblastic early multicellular eukaryotic hosts contain and operate the molecular machinery resembling those of malignantly transformed individual cells of highly advanced multicellular hosts (including Homo). In the present review, the STAT/NF-κB pathway of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is compared with that of human tumors (malignant lymphomas, including Reed-Sternberg cells) pointing out similarities, including possible viral initiation in both cases. In the ctenophore genome and proteome, β-catenin gains intranuclear advantages due to a physiologically weak destructive complex in the cytoplasm, and lack of natural inhibitors (the Dickkopfs). Thus, a scenario similar to what tumor cells initiate and achieve is presented through several constitutive loss-of-function type mutations in the destructive complex and in the elimination of inhibitors. Vice versa, malignantly transformed individual cells of advanced multicellular hosts assume pheno-genotypic resemblance to cells of unicellular or early multicellular hosts, and presumably to their ancient predecessors, by returning to the semblance of immortality and to the resumption of the state of high degree of resistance to physicochemical insults. Human leukemogenic and oncogenic pathways are presented for comparisons. The supreme bioengineers RNA/DNA complex encoded both the malignantly transformed immortal cell and the human cerebral cortex. The former generates molecules for the immortality of cellular life in the Universe. The latter invents the inhibitors of the process in order to gain control over it.
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              Immunotherapy for sarcomas: new frontiers and unveiled opportunities

              Sarcomas are a rare malignancy of mesenchymal tissues, comprizing a plethora of unique subtypes, with more than 60 types. The sheer heterogeneity of disease phenotype makes this a particularly difficult cancer to treat. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery have been employed for over three decades and, although effective in early disease (stages I–II), in later stages, where metastatic tumors are present, these treatments are less effective. Given the spectacular results obtained by cancer immunotherapy in a variety of solid cancers and leukemias, there is now a great interest in appliying this new realm of therapy for sarcomas. The widespread use of immunotherapy for sarcoma relies on immuno-profiling of subtypes, immunomonitoring for prognosis, preclinical studies and insight into the safety profile of these novel therapies. Herein, we discuss preclinical and clinical data highlighting how immunotherapy is being used in soft tissue sarcoma and bone sarcomas.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                05 July 2021
                10 July 2021
                : 11
                : 2
                : 44-49
                [1 ] Retired Medical Director, Cancer Institute, St Joseph’s Hospital Tampa, FL, USA
                [2 ] Retired Director of Research & Development, Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc , New Brunswick NJ, USA
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. 7811 East 113 th Avenue, Temple Terrace, FL 33617, USA. E-mail: jsinkovics@ 123456live.com
                © 2021, The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes - if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 15, Pages: 6
                Review Paper

                burnet’s surveillance,natural hybridoma,myxofibrosarcoma,oncolytic virus,apoptosis,nk cells


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