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Grass is not always greener: rodenticide exposure of a threatened species near marijuana growing operations

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      Abstract

      ObjectiveMarijuana (Cannabis spp.) growing operations (MGO) in California have increased substantially since the mid-1990s. One environmental side-effect of MGOs is the extensive use of anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) to prevent damage to marijuana plants caused by wild rodents. In association with a long-term demographic study, we report on an observation of brodifacoum AR exposure in a threatened species, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), found freshly dead within 669–1347 m of at least seven active MGOs.ResultsLiver and blood samples from the dead northern spotted owl were tested for 12 rodenticides. Brodifacoum was the only rodenticide detected in the liver (33.3–36.3 ng/g) and blood (0.48–0.54 ng/ml). Based on necropsy results, it was unclear what role brodifacoum had in the death of this bird. However, fatal AR poisoning has been previously reported in owls with relatively low levels of brodifacoum residues in the liver. One likely mechanism of AR transmission from MGOs to northern spotted owls in California is through ingestion of AR contaminated prey that frequent MGOs. The proliferation of MGOs with their use of ARs in forested landscapes used by northern spotted owls may pose an additional stressor for this threatened species.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s13104-018-3206-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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      CLIMATE, HABITAT QUALITY, AND FITNESS IN NORTHERN SPOTTED OWL POPULATIONS IN NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA

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        Essential oils for the development of eco-friendly mosquito larvicides: A review

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          Influence of primary prey on home-range size and habitat-use patterns of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0725 8379, GRID grid.413759.d, USDA-APHIS-WS National Wildlife Research Center, ; 4101 Laporte Ave, Fort Collins, CO 80521 USA
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8083, GRID grid.47894.36, Colorado Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, , Colorado State University, ; 1484 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2236 2537, GRID grid.415843.f, U. S. Geological Survey, , National Wildlife Health Center, ; 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711 USA
            [4 ]Integral Ecology Research Center, 239 Railroad Avenue, Blue Lake, CA 95525 USA
            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9491-795X, 970-266-6137 , alan.b.franklin@aphis.usda.gov
            peter.carlson@colostate.edu
            angela.rex@colostate.edu
            jeremy.rockweit@colostate.edu
            dag335@humboldt.edu
            erc48@humboldt.edu
            steven.f.volker@aphis.usda.gov
            rdusek@usgs.gov
            vbochsler@usgs.gov
            mgabriel@IERCecology.org
            katherine.e.horak@aphis.usda.gov
            Journal
            BMC Res Notes
            BMC Res Notes
            BMC Research Notes
            BioMed Central (London )
            1756-0500
            2 February 2018
            2 February 2018
            2018
            : 11
            29391058
            5796583
            3206
            10.1186/s13104-018-3206-z
            © The Author(s) 2018

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Funding
            Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100006959, U.S. Forest Service;
            Funded by: USGS National Wildlife Health Center
            Categories
            Research Note
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2018

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