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      A psychometric analysis of the reading the mind in the eyes test: toward a brief form for research and applied settings

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          Abstract

          The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test is a popular measure of individual differences in Theory of Mind that is often applied in the assessment of particular clinical populations (primarily, individuals on the autism spectrum). However, little is known about the test's psychometric properties, including factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity evidence. We present a psychometric analysis of the test followed by an evaluation of other empirically proposed and statistically identified structures. We identified, and cross-validated in a second sample, an adequate short-form solution that is homogeneous with adequate internal consistency, and is moderately related to Cognitive Empathy, Emotion Perception, and strongly related to Vocabulary. We recommend the use of this short-form solution in normal adults as a more precise measure over the original version. Future revisions of the test should seek to reduce the test's reliance on one's vocabulary and evaluate the short-form structure in clinical populations.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives

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            Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests

             Lee Cronbach (1951)
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              Comparative fit indexes in structural models.

               P. Bentler (1990)
              Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model. A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters. A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models. Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes. CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI). FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI. Asymptotically, CFI, FI, NFI, and a new index developed by Bollen are equivalent measures of comparative fit, whereas NNFI measures relative fit by comparing noncentrality per degree of freedom. All of the indexes are generalized to permit use of Wald and Lagrange multiplier statistics. An example illustrates the behavior of these indexes under conditions of correct specification and misspecification. The new fit indexes perform very well at all sample sizes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                06 October 2015
                2015
                : 6
                Affiliations
                1Institute for Psychology and Pedagogy, Ulm University Ulm, Germany
                2Educational Testing Service Philadelphia, PA, USA
                3Professional Examination Service New York City, NY, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Pietro Cipresso, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Italy

                Reviewed by: Timothy R. Brick, Pennsylvania State Unviersity, USA; Ioannis Tsaousis, University of Crete, Greece

                *Correspondence: Sally Olderbak, Institute for Psychology and Pedagogy, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein Allee 47 89081, Ulm, Germany sally.olderbak@ 123456uni-ulm.de

                This article was submitted to Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01503
                4593947
                Copyright © 2015 Olderbak, Wilhelm, Olaru, Geiger, Brenneman and Roberts.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 85, Pages: 14, Words: 11825
                Funding
                Funded by: U.S. Army Research Institute
                Award ID: W5J9CQ-12-R-0002
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research

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