Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases at schools in Beijing from 2010 to 2020, providing evidence for the prevention and control strategies in school infectious diseases.
Methods Information on public health emergencies was collected from Public Health Emergency Reporting System (the subsystem of Chinese Disease Prevention and Control Information System) reported from 2010 to 2020.
Results A total of 146 public health emergencies and 138 public health emergencies of infectious diseases in schools were reported in Beijing from 2010 to 2020, including 4 291 cases with the rate of 2.32% and affected or exposed 185 179 cases. There were significant difference in mean annual incidence rates (χ 2=782.46, P<0.01). There were 71 events of respiratory infectious diseases and 66 events of intestinal infectious diseases, accounting for 51.45% and 47.83%, respectively. The annual incidence peaks of public health emergencies of infectious diseases were during March-June and October–December. The events mainly occurred in kindergartens and primary schools among each stage of school periods with 51 and 46 incidences respectively, which accounted for 70. 29% of the total number of public health emergencies in schools. The leading infectious diseases among all the reported events in kindergartens and primary schools were hand-foot-mouth disease and varicella. Varicella and other infectious diarrhoeal diseases were at the top lists of infectious disease outbreaks at the secondary and university stages.
Conclusion Infectious diseases events were the major type of public health emergencies at schools in Beijing from 2010 to 2020. Respiratory infectious diseases and intestinal infectious diseases were the keys to the prevention and control of public health emergencies related to school. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance for public health emergencies especially for symptom surveillance. The prevention and control measures should be taken according to the characteristics of different age groups. At the same time, the prevention and control of school infectious diseases and the drill of the plan during peak periods need to be particularly strengthened.
【摘要】 目的 分析北京市学校突发传染病事件流行病学特征, 为学校传染病防控提供策略依据。 方法 通过“中国疾 病预防控制信息系统”子系统“突发公共卫生事件管理信息系统”, 获取 2010—2020 年北京市报告的学校突发传染病事件 信息。 结果 2010—2020 年, 北京市学校报告突发公共卫生事件数 146 起, 其中学校突发传染病事件 138 起, 发病人数 4 291 例, 波及或暴露人数 185 179 人, 罹患率为 2.32%, 年平均罹患率差异有统计学意义 (χ 2=782.46, P<0.01)。学校突发 传染病事件主要为呼吸道和肠道传染病, 分别为 71 和 66 起, 分别占学校传染病事件总数的 51.45% 和 47.83%。时间分布 上, 每年的 3—6 月和 10—12 月为传染病类突发事件的髙发期。人群和病种分布上, 托幼机构和小学阶段报告的传染病类 突发事件最多, 分别为 51 和 46 起, 共占学校报告事件总数的 70.29%, 且以手足口病和水疸为主;水疸和其他感染性腹泻 病是中学和大学阶段传染病类突发事件的首位。 结论 传染病事件在北京市学校突发公共卫生事件中占主导, 呼吸道和 肠道传染病是学校防控的关键。学校应加强症状监测, 并根据不同年龄段的特点实施有针对性的防控措施, 同时规范疫情 处置工作, 在疫情髙峰期加强学校传染病的防治和预案演练。