0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      CCL19 and CCL21 modulate the inflammatory milieu in atherosclerotic lesions

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Despite advances in the pharmacologic and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and elevated expression of CCL19 and CCL21 has been observed in ruptured lesions of coronary arteries of patients with myocardial infarction and carotid plaques of patients with ischemic symptoms, as well as in plasma of coronary artery disease patients. However, the exact role of CCL19 and CCL21 in atherosclerosis remains unknown. In order to identify CCL19 and CCL21 as a novel therapeutic target, we performed bone marrow transplantation as an immunomodulatory treatment concept. Bone marrow of plt/plt mice (lacking CCL19 and CCL21-Ser) was transplanted into atherogenic Ldlr −/− mice. The study demonstrated a significantly increased inflammatory cellular infiltration into the lesions of plt/plt/Ldlr −/− mice versus controls. Although the level of chemoattraction was increased, messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels in thoracic aorta and serum of several proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-17) were significantly reduced in plt/plt/Ldlr −/− versus control mice. Increased influx, accompanied by reduced activation of leukocytes in atherosclerotic lesion, was accompanied by increased plaque stability but unchanged lesion development. In conclusion, modulation of the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 represents a potent immunoregulatory treatment approach, and thus represents a novel therapeutic target to stabilize atherosclerotic lesions.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 32

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study.

          Prevention and control of disease and injury require information about the leading medical causes of illness and exposures or risk factors. The assessment of the public-health importance of these has been hampered by the lack of common methods to investigate the overall, worldwide burden. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) provides a standardised approach to epidemiological assessment and uses a standard unit, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), to aid comparisons. DALYs for each age-sex group in each GBD region for 107 disorders were calculated, based on the estimates of mortality by cause, incidence, average age of onset, duration, and disability severity. Estimates of the burden and prevalence of exposure in different regions of disorders attributable to malnutrition, poor water supply, sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene, unsafe sex, tobacco use, alcohol, occupation, hypertension, physical inactivity, use of illicit drugs, and air pollution were developed. Developed regions account for 11.6% of the worldwide burden from all causes of death and disability, and account for 90.2% of health expenditure worldwide. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders explain 43.9%; non-communicable causes 40.9%; injuries 15.1%; malignant neoplasms 5.1%; neuropsychiatric conditions 10.5%; and cardiovascular conditions 9.7% of DALYs worldwide. The ten leading specific causes of global DALYs are, in descending order, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, perinatal disorders, unipolar major depression, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, measles, road-traffic accidents, and congenital anomalies. 15.9% of DALYs worldwide are attributable to childhood malnutrition and 6.8% to poor water, and sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene. The three leading contributors to the burden of disease are communicable and perinatal disorders affecting children. The substantial burdens of neuropsychiatric disorders and injuries are under-recognised. The epidemiological transition in terms of DALYs has progressed substantially in China, Latin America and the Caribbean, other Asia and islands, and the middle eastern crescent. If the burdens of disability and death are taken into account, our list differs substantially from other lists of the leading causes of death. DALYs provide a common metric to aid meaningful comparison of the burden of risk factors, diseases, and injuries.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Lessons From Sudden Coronary Death

            Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 20(5), 1262-1275
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              CCR7 and its ligands: balancing immunity and tolerance.

              A key feature of the immune system is its ability to induce protective immunity against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self and innocuous environmental antigens. Recent evidence suggests that by guiding cells to and within lymphoid organs, CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) essentially contributes to both immunity and tolerance. This receptor is involved in organizing thymic architecture and function, lymph-node homing of naive and regulatory T cells via high endothelial venules, as well as steady state and inflammation-induced lymph-node-bound migration of dendritic cells via afferent lymphatics. Here, we focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that enable CCR7 and its two ligands, CCL19 and CCL21, to balance immunity and tolerance.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                27 November 2014
                : 8
                : 2359-2371
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
                [2 ]DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg/Mannheim, Germany
                [3 ]Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
                Author notes

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Correspondence: Christian Erbel, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Medical Clinic III, University Hospital Heidelberg – INF 410, 672 Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg 69120, Germany, Tel +49 6221 563 8879, Fax +49 6221 565 515, Email christian.erbel@ 123456med.uni-heidelberg.de
                Article
                dddt-8-2359
                10.2147/DDDT.S72394
                4251537
                25473269
                © 2014 Akhavanpoor et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article