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      Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging as a Tool to Chemically and Spatially Characterize Matrix-Mineral Deposition in Osteoblasts

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      Calcified Tissue International

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Mineralizing osteoblasts are regularly used to study osteogenesis and model in vivo bone formation. Thus, it is important to verify that the mineral and matrix being formed in situ are comparable to those found in vivo. However, it has been shown that histochemical techniques alone are not sufficient for identifying calcium phosphate-containing mineral. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) as a tool for characterizing the spatial distribution and colocalization of the collagen matrix and the mineral phase during the mineralization process of osteoblasts in situ. MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts were mineralized in culture for 28 days and FTIRI was used to evaluate the collagen content, collagen cross-linking, mineralization level and speciation, and mineral crystallinity in a spatially resolved fashion as a function of time. To test whether FTIRI could detect subtle changes in the mineralization process, cells were treated with risedronate (RIS). Results showed that collagen deposition and mineralization progressed over time and that the apatite mineral was associated with a collagenous matrix rather than ectopic mineral. The process was temporarily slowed by RIS, where the inhibition of osteoblast function caused slowed collagen production and cross-linking, leading to decreased mineralization. This study demonstrates that FTIRI is a complementary tool to histochemistry for spatially correlating the collagen matrix distribution and the nature of the resultant mineral during the process of osteoblast mineralization. It can further be used to detect small perturbations in the osteoid and mineral deposition process.

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          Most cited references 66

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          In vitro differentiation and calcification in a new clonal osteogenic cell line derived from newborn mouse calvaria

          We investigated the capacity of a clonal osteogenic cell line MC3T3-E1, established from newborn mouse calvaria and selected on the basis of high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the confluent state, to differentiate into osteoblasts and mineralize in vitro. The cells in the growing state showed a fibroblastic morphology and grew to form multiple layers. On day 21, clusters of cells exhibiting typical osteoblastic morphology were found in osmiophilic nodular regions. Such nodules increased in number and size with incubation time and became easily identifiable with the naked eye by day 40-50. In the central part of well-developed nodules, osteocytes were embedded in heavily mineralized bone matrix. Osteoblasts were arranged at the periphery of the bone spicules and were surrounded by lysosome-rich cells and a fibroblastic cell layer. Numerous matrix vesicles were scattered around the osteoblasts and young osteocytes. Matrix vesicles and plasma membranes of osteoblasts, young osteocytes, and lysosome-rich cells showed strong reaction to cytochemical stainings for ALP activity and calcium ions. Minerals were initially localized in the matrix vesicles and then deposited on well-banded collagen fibrils. Deposited minerals consisted exclusively of calcium and phosphorus, and some of the crystals had matured into hydroxyapatite crystals. These results indicate that MC3T3-E1 cells have the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts and osteocytes and to form calcified bone tissue in vitro.
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            Novel insights into actions of bisphosphonates on bone: differences in interactions with hydroxyapatite.

            Bisphosphonates are now the most widely used drugs for diseases associated with increased bone resorption, such as osteoporosis. Although bisphosphonates act directly on osteoclasts, and interfere with specific biochemical processes such as protein prenylation, their ability to adsorb to bone mineral also contributes to their potency and duration of action. The aim of the present study was to compare the binding affinities for hydroxyapatite (HAP) of 6 bisphosphonates currently used clinically and to determine the effects of these bisphosphonates on other mineral surface properties including zeta potential and interfacial tension. Affinity constants (K(L)) for the adsorption of bisphosphonates were calculated from kinetic studies on HAP crystal growth using a constant composition method at 37 degrees C and at physiological ionic strength (0.15 M). Under conditions likely to simulate bisphosphonate binding onto bone, there were significant differences in K(L) among the bisphosphonates for HAP growth (pH 7.4) with a rank order of zoledronate > alendronate > ibandronate > risedronate > etidronate > clodronate. The measurements of zeta potential show that the crystal surface is modified by the adsorption of bisphosphonates in a manner best explained by molecular charges related to the protonation of their side-chain moieties, with risedronate showing substantial differences from alendronate, ibandronate, and zoledronate. The studies of the solid/liquid interfacial properties show additional differences among the bisphosphonates that may influence their mechanisms for binding and inhibiting crystal growth and dissolution. The observed differences in kinetic binding affinities, HAP zeta potentials, and interfacial tension are likely to contribute to the biological properties of the various bisphosphonates. In particular, these binding properties may contribute to differences in uptake and persistence in bone and the reversibility of effects. These properties, therefore, have potential clinical implications that may be important in understanding differences among potent bisphosphonates, such as the apparently more prolonged duration of action of alendronate and zoledronate compared with the more readily reversible effects of etidronate and risedronate.
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              Isolation and characterization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast subclones with distinct in vitro and in vivo differentiation/mineralization potential.

              A series of subclonal cell lines with high or low differentiation/mineralization potential after growth in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) were derived from murine MC3T3-E1 cells. Subclones were characterized in terms of their ability to mineralize a collagenous extracellular matrix both in vitro and in vivo and express osteoblast-related genes. When compared with nonmineralizing cells, mineralizing subclones selectively expressed mRNAs for the osteoblast markers, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN), and the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase mRNA was present in certain nonmineralizing as well as mineralizing subclones, suggesting that its expression may be subject to different controls from other osteoblast markers. Only highly differentiating subclones exhibited strong AA-dependent induction of a transiently transfected OCN promoter-luciferase reporter gene, indicating that there was a good correlation between mRNA levels and transcriptional activity. Consistent with its postulated role in biomineralization, BSP as measured by Western blotting was only present in mineralizing subclones. After implantation into immunodeficient mice, highly differentiating subclones formed bone-like ossicles resembling woven bone, while poorly differentiating cells only produced fibrous tissue. Interestingly, subclones with both high and low differentiation potential produced similar amounts of collagen in culture and expressed comparable basal levels of mRNA encoding Osf2/Cbfa1, an osteoblast-related transcription factor. Although some strongly differentiating cells exhibited a modest AA-dependent up-regulation of Osf2/Cbfa1 mRNA, there was no clear relationship between levels of this message and induction of mRNAs for other differentiation markers. Thus, the mere presence of Osf2/Cbfa1 in a subclone was not sufficient for osteoblast differentiation. These subclones will be very useful for studying critical events in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Calcified Tissue International
                Calcif Tissue Int
                Springer Nature
                0171-967X
                1432-0827
                January 2013
                November 10 2012
                January 2013
                : 92
                : 1
                : 50-58
                Article
                10.1007/s00223-012-9667-5
                23143076
                © 2013
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