0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Cell Heterogeneity and Paracrine Interactions in Human Islet Function: A Perspective Focused in β-Cell Regeneration Strategies

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The β-cell regeneration field has shown a strong knowledge boost in the last 10 years. Pluripotent stem cell differentiation and direct reprogramming from other adult cell types are becoming more tangible long-term diabetes therapies. Newly generated β-like-cells consistently show hallmarks of native β-cells and can restore normoglycemia in diabetic mice in virtually all recent studies. Nonetheless, these cells still show important compromises in insulin secretion, cell metabolism, electrical activity, and overall survival, perhaps due to a lack of signal integration from other islet cells. Mounting data suggest that diabetes is not only a β-cell disease, as the other islet cell types also contribute to its physiopathology. Here, we present an update on the most recent studies of islet cell heterogeneity and paracrine interactions in the context of restoring an integrated islet function to improve β-cell replacement therapies.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 94

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Generation of functional human pancreatic β cells in vitro.

          The generation of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells from stem cells in vitro would provide an unprecedented cell source for drug discovery and cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells previously generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) lack many functional characteristics of bona fide β cells. Here, we report a scalable differentiation protocol that can generate hundreds of millions of glucose-responsive β cells from hPSC in vitro. These stem-cell-derived β cells (SC-β) express markers found in mature β cells, flux Ca(2+) in response to glucose, package insulin into secretory granules, and secrete quantities of insulin comparable to adult β cells in response to multiple sequential glucose challenges in vitro. Furthermore, these cells secrete human insulin into the serum of mice shortly after transplantation in a glucose-regulated manner, and transplantation of these cells ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Reversal of diabetes with insulin-producing cells derived in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells.

            Transplantation of pancreatic progenitors or insulin-secreting cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been proposed as a therapy for diabetes. We describe a seven-stage protocol that efficiently converts hESCs into insulin-producing cells. Stage (S) 7 cells expressed key markers of mature pancreatic beta cells, including MAFA, and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion similar to that of human islets during static incubations in vitro. Additional characterization using single-cell imaging and dynamic glucose stimulation assays revealed similarities but also notable differences between S7 insulin-secreting cells and primary human beta cells. Nevertheless, S7 cells rapidly reversed diabetes in mice within 40 days, roughly four times faster than pancreatic progenitors. Therefore, although S7 cells are not fully equivalent to mature beta cells, their capacity for glucose-responsive insulin secretion and rapid reversal of diabetes in vivo makes them a promising alternative to pancreatic progenitor cells or cadaveric islets for the treatment of diabetes.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Map of the Human and Mouse Pancreas Reveals Inter- and Intra-cell Population Structure.

              Although the function of the mammalian pancreas hinges on complex interactions of distinct cell types, gene expression profiles have primarily been described with bulk mixtures. Here we implemented a droplet-based, single-cell RNA-seq method to determine the transcriptomes of over 12,000 individual pancreatic cells from four human donors and two mouse strains. Cells could be divided into 15 clusters that matched previously characterized cell types: all endocrine cell types, including rare epsilon-cells; exocrine cell types; vascular cells; Schwann cells; quiescent and activated stellate cells; and four types of immune cells. We detected subpopulations of ductal cells with distinct expression profiles and validated their existence with immuno-histochemistry stains. Moreover, among human beta- cells, we detected heterogeneity in the regulation of genes relating to functional maturation and levels of ER stress. Finally, we deconvolved bulk gene expression samples using the single-cell data to detect disease-associated differential expression. Our dataset provides a resource for the discovery of novel cell type-specific transcription factors, signaling receptors, and medically relevant genes.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                03 February 2021
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva , Geneva, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Hanne Scholz, University of Oslo, Norway

                Reviewed by: Weiping Han, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (A*STAR), Singapore; Hail Kim, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea

                *Correspondence: Pedro L. Herrera, pedro.herrera@ 123456unige.ch

                This article was submitted to Cellular Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2020.619150
                7888438
                Copyright © 2021 Bru-Tari, Oropeza and Herrera

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 94, Pages: 8, Words: 3989
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Mini Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article