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      Critical Single Proximal Left Arterial Descending Coronary Artery Stenosis to Mimic Chronic Myocardial Ischemia: A New Model Induced by Minimal Invasive Technology

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The present report examines a new pig model for progressive induction of high-grade stenosis, for the study of chronic myocardial ischemia and the dynamics of collateral vessel growth. Methods: Thirty-nine Landrace pigs were instrumented with a novel experimental stent (GVD stent) in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Eight animals underwent transthoracic echocardiography at rest and under low-dose dobutamine. Seven animals were examined by nuclear PET and SPECT analysis. Epi-, mid- and endocardial fibrosis and the numbers of arterial vessels were examined by histology. Results: Functional analysis showed a significant decrease in global left ventricular ejection fraction (24.5 ± 1.6%) 3 weeks after implantation. There was a trend to increased left ventricular ejection fraction after low-dose dobutamine stress (36.0 ± 6.6%) and a significant improvement of the impaired regional anterior wall motion. PET and SPECT imaging documented chronic hibernation. Myocardial fibrosis increased significantly in the ischemic area with a gradient from epi- to endocardial. The number of arterial vessels in the ischemic area increased and coronary angiography showed abundant collateral vessels of Rentrop class 1. Conclusion: The presented experimental model mimics the clinical situation of chronic myocardial ischemia secondary to 1-vessel coronary disease.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Picrosirius staining plus polarization microscopy, a specific method for collagen detection in tissue sections

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            Changes in collateral channel filling immediately after controlled coronary artery occlusion by an angioplasty balloon in human subjects.

            Transluminal coronary angioplasty can serve as a model for controlled coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion which enables assessment of short-term changes in collateral vessel filling in patients with severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. In 16 patients with isolated left anterior descending or right coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 75% stenosis) and normal left ventricular function, collateral filling to the artery being dilated was visualized by contrast injection into the contralateral artery using a second arterial catheter. During balloon inflation, contralateral dye injection was performed as soon as the patient developed angina or ST-T changes or at 90 seconds in those patients without symptoms or signs of ischemia. Grades of collateral filling from the contralateral vessel were: 0 = none; 1 = filling of side branches of the artery to be dilated via collateral channels without visualization of the epicardial segment; 2 = partial filling of the epicardial segment via collateral channels; 3 = complete filling of the epicardial segment of the artery being dilated via collateral channels. At baseline angiography, nine patients had grade 0 collateral filling, seven had grade 1 and none had grade 2 or 3. During coronary occlusion by balloon inflation, collateral filling improved by one grade in eight patients, two grades in five patients, three grades in two patients and remained the same in one patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              The effect of intravenous thrombolytic therapy on left ventricular function: a report on tissue-type plasminogen activator and streptokinase from the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI Phase I) trial.

              In Phase I of the NHLBI trial of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), 290 patients admitted within 7 hr after onset of acute infarction were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with either streptokinase (SK) or recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Left ventricular function was measured from contrast ventriculograms in 145 patients with both pretreatment and predischarge studies analyzable. Regional wall motion in the infarct site was measured by the centerline method and expressed in units of standard deviations (SDs) from the mean motion in 52 normal subjects. Patients treated with rt-PA (n = 77) achieved a significantly higher reperfusion rate after 90 min of treatment. Perfusion of the infarct-related artery improved from visual grade 0 or 1 (total occlusion or penetration without perfusion) to grade 2 or 3 (partial or full reperfusion) in 62% receiving rt-PA vs 31% receiving SK (n = 68) (p less than .001). However, the ejection fraction did not change significantly from before treatment to before discharge in either treatment group (+0.7 +/- 6.7% vs +1.0 +/- 8.3%, respectively). A small but significant increase in regional wall motion was observed in each of the two groups (+0.4 +/- 0.8 vs +0.3 +/- 0.8 SD/chord, respectively; each p less than .001 compared with baseline). This was countered by declines in the hyperkinesis of the noninfarct region (-0.3 +/- 1.0 SD/chord [p = .01] compared with baseline and -0.2 +/- 1.0 SD/chord [p = .23], respectively). Analysis of the combined groups revealed that the ejection fraction increased only in patients who achieved reperfusion by 90 min after onset of therapy or who had subtotal occlusions initially. There was greater recovery of left ventricular function in patients who achieved reperfusion earlier vs later than 4 hr after symptom onset and in patients with vs without some collateral circulation to the infarct-related artery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2009
                June 2009
                11 December 2008
                : 46
                : 4
                : 290-298
                Affiliations
                aSecond Medical Clinic, bInstitute for Neurosurgical Pathophysiology and cClinic for Nuclear Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, and dThoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospitals Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Germany; eInstitut Universitaire de Pathologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
                Article
                181545 J Vasc Res 2009;46:290–298
                10.1159/000181545
                19077390
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 32, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Methods in Vascular Biology

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