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      Durable tumor regression in highly refractory metastatic KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST following treatment with nivolumab

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          Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a devastating disease, especially in the setting of metastasis. The natural progression of GIST has been significantly altered by the development of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib, all of which are FDA approved. However, TKIs are not always well-tolerated, and the refractory disease continues to be a problem. For these reasons, alternative treatments are needed. In this report, we discuss a patient with metastatic wild-type (WT) GIST refractory to multiple TKIs, but with a durable clinical response to the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibody, nivolumab. This report suggests that continued research evaluating checkpoint inhibitors in GIST is warranted.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

          Once a poorly defined pathologic oddity, in recent years, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has emerged as a distinct oncogenetic entity that is now center stage in clinical trials of kinase-targeted therapies. This review charts the rapid progress that has established GIST as a model for understanding the role of oncogenic kinase mutations in human tumorigenesis. Approximately 80% to 85% of GISTs harbor activating mutations of the KIT tyrosine kinase. In a series of 322 GISTs (including 140 previously published cases) studied by the authors in detail, mutations in the KIT gene occurred with decreasing frequency in exons 11 (66.1%), 9 (13%), 13 (1.2%), and 17 (0.6%). In the same series, a subset of tumors had mutations in the KIT-related kinase gene PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFRA), which occurred in either exon 18 (5.6%) or 12 (1.5%). The remainder of GISTs (12%) were wild type for both KIT and PDGFRA. Comparative studies of KIT-mutant, PDGFRA-mutant, and wild-type GISTs indicate that there are many similarities between these groups of tumors but also important differences. In particular, the responsiveness of GISTs to treatment with the kinase inhibitor imatinib varies substantially depending on the exonic location of the KIT or PDGFRA mutation. Given these differences, which have implications both for the diagnosis and treatment of GISTs, we propose a molecular-based classification of GIST. Recent studies of familial GIST, pediatric GIST, and variant forms of GIST related to Carney's triad and neurofibromatosis type 1 are discussed in relationship to this molecular classification. In addition, the role of mutation screening in KIT and PDGFRA as a diagnostic and prognostic aid is emphasized in this review.
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            Imatinib potentiates anti-tumor T cell responses in gastrointestinal stromal tumor through the inhibition of Ido

            Imatinib mesylate targets mutated KIT oncoproteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and achieves a clinical response in 80% of patients. The mechanism is believed to depend predominantly on the inhibition of KIT-driven signals for tumor cell survival and proliferation. Using a mouse model of spontaneous GIST, we found that the immune system contributes substantially to the anti-tumor effects of imatinib. Imatinib therapy activated CD8+ T cells and induced regulatory T cell (T reg) apoptosis within the tumor by reducing tumor cell expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido). Concurrent immunotherapy augmented the efficacy of imatinib in mouse GIST. In freshly obtained human GIST specimens, the T cell profile correlated with imatinib sensitivity and IDO expression. Thus, T cells are critical to the anti-tumor effects of imatinib in GIST and concomitant immunotherapy may further improve outcome in human cancers treated with targeted agents.
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              Histo-cytometry: a method for highly multiplex quantitative tissue imaging analysis applied to dendritic cell subset microanatomy in lymph nodes.

              Flow cytometry allows highly quantitative analysis of complex dissociated populations at the cost of neglecting their tissue localization. In contrast, conventional microscopy methods provide spatial information, but visualization and quantification of cellular subsets defined by complex phenotypic marker combinations is challenging. Here, we describe an analytical microscopy method, "histo-cytometry," for visualizing and quantifying phenotypically complex cell populations directly in tissue sections. This technology is based on multiplexed antibody staining, tiled high-resolution confocal microscopy, voxel gating, volumetric cell rendering, and quantitative analysis. We have tested this technology on various innate and adaptive immune populations in murine lymph nodes (LNs) and were able to identify complex cellular subsets and phenotypes, achieving quantitatively similar results to flow cytometry, while also gathering cellular positional information. Here, we employ histo-cytometry to describe the spatial segregation of resident and migratory dendritic cell subsets into specialized microanatomical domains, suggesting an unexpected LN demarcation into discrete functional compartments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Taylor & Francis
                13 January 2020
                13 January 2020
                : 9
                : 1
                [a ]Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center , Seattle, WA, USA
                [b ]Department of Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center , Seattle, WA, USA
                [c ]Department of Radiology, University of Washington , Seattle, WA, USA
                [d ]Sarcoma Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research , London, UK
                [e ]Department of Medicine, University of Washington , Seattle, WA, USA
                Author notes
                CONTACT Brett A. Schroeder bschroed@ Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center , Seattle, WA, USA
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 24, Pages: 7
                Brief Report


                sarcoma, gist, pd-l1, pd-1, imatinib, refractory, metastatic, nivolumab, wild-type


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