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      Coding, analysis, interpretation, and recognition of facial expressions

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          Most cited references 21

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          View-based and modular eigenspaces for face recognition

           Pentland,  Moghaddam,  Starner (1994)
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            Emotion recognition: the role of facial movement and the relative importance of upper and lower areas of the face.

            In order to investigate the role of facial movement in the recognition of emotions, faces were covered with black makeup and white spots. Video recordings of such faces were played back so that only the white spots were visible. The results demonstrated that moving displays of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger and disgust were recognized more accurately than static displays of the white spots at the apex of the expressions. This indicated that facial motion, in the absence of information about the shape and position of facial features, is informative about these basic emotions. Normally illuminated dynamic displays of these expressions, however, were recognized more accurately than displays of moving spots. The relative effectiveness of upper and lower facial areas for the recognition of these six emotions was also investigated using normally illuminated and spots-only displays. In both instances the results indicated that different facial regions are more informative for different emitions. The movement patterns characterizing the various emotional expressions as well as common confusions between emotions are also discussed.
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              Coding, analysis, interpretation, and recognition of facial expressions

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
                IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell.
                Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
                01628828
                July 1997
                : 19
                : 7
                : 757-763
                Article
                10.1109/34.598232
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