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      Impact of stress on the gut microbiome of free-ranging western lowland gorillas

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          Most cited references 18

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          Obesity and the human microbiome.

           Ruth E Ley (2009)
          Obesity was once rare, but the last few decades have seen a rapid expansion of the proportion of obese individuals worldwide. Recent work has shown obesity to be associated with a shift in the representation of the dominant phyla of bacteria in the gut, both in humans and animal models. This review summarizes the latest research into the association between microbial ecology and host adiposity, and the mechanisms by which microbes in the gut may mediate host metabolism in the context of obesity. Studies of the effect of excess body fat on the abundances of different bacteria taxa in the gut generally show alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota, and changes during weight loss. The gastrointestinal microbiota have been shown to impact insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiposity via interactions with epithelial and endocrine cells. Large-scale alterations of the gut microbiota and its microbiome (gene content) are associated with obesity and are responsive to weight loss. Gut microbes can impact host metabolism via signaling pathways in the gut, with effects on inflammation, insulin resistance, and deposition of energy in fat stores. Restoration of the gut microbiota to a healthy state may ameliorate the conditions associated with obesity and help maintain a healthy weight.
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            Is Open Access

            Commensal Clostridia: leading players in the maintenance of gut homeostasis

            The gastrointestinal tract is a complex and dynamic network where an intricate and mutualistic symbiosis modulates the relationship between the host and the microbiota in order to establish and ensure gut homeostasis. Commensal Clostridia consist of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes and make up a substantial part of the total bacteria in the gut microbiota. They start to colonize the intestine of breastfed infants during the first month of life and populate a specific region in the intestinal mucosa in close relationship with intestinal cells. This position allows them to participate as crucial factors in modulating physiologic, metabolic and immune processes in the gut during the entire lifespan, by interacting with the other resident microbe populations, but also by providing specific and essential functions. This review focus on what is currently known regarding the role of commensal Clostridia in the maintenance of overall gut function, as well as touch on their potential contribution in the unfavorable alteration of microbiota composition (dysbiosis) that has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Commensal Clostridia are strongly involved in the maintenance of overall gut function. This leads to important translational implications in regard to the prevention and treatment of dysbiosis, to drug efficacy and toxicity, and to the development of therapies that may modulate the composition of the microflora, capitalizing on the key role of commensal Clostridia, with the end goal of promoting gut health.
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              Reproducible community dynamics of the gastrointestinal microbiota following antibiotic perturbation.

              Shifts in microbial communities are implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal diseases, but we have limited understanding of the mechanisms that lead to altered community structures. One difficulty with studying these mechanisms in human subjects is the inherent baseline variability of the microbiota in different individuals. In an effort to overcome this baseline variability, we employed a mouse model to control the host genotype, diet, and other possible influences on the microbiota. This allowed us to determine whether the indigenous microbiota in such mice had a stable baseline community structure and whether this community exhibited a consistent response following antibiotic administration. We employed a tag-sequencing strategy targeting the V6 hypervariable region of the bacterial small-subunit (16S) rRNA combined with massively parallel sequencing to determine the community structure of the gut microbiota. Inbred mice in a controlled environment harbored a reproducible baseline community that was significantly impacted by antibiotic administration. The ability of the gut microbial community to recover to baseline following the cessation of antibiotic administration differed according to the antibiotic regimen administered. Severe antibiotic pressure resulted in reproducible, long-lasting alterations in the gut microbial community, including a decrease in overall diversity. The finding of stereotypic responses of the indigenous microbiota to ecologic stress suggests that a better understanding of the factors that govern community structure could lead to strategies for the intentional manipulation of this ecosystem so as to preserve or restore a healthy microbiota.

                Author and article information

                Microbiology Society
                January 01 2018
                January 01 2018
                : 164
                : 1
                : 40-44
                [1 ] 1​Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
                [2 ] 2​Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Květná 8, Brno 60365, Czech Republic
                [3 ] 3​Fauna and Flora International, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK
                [4 ] 4​German Primate Centre, Endocrinology Laboratory, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
                [5 ] 5​Liberec Zoo, Masarykova 1347/31, Liberec, 46001, Czech Republic
                [6 ] 6​Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, České Budějovice, 37005, Czech Republic
                [7 ] 7​WWF, Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, BP 1053 Bangui, Central African Republic
                [8 ] 8​CEITEC VFU, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1946/1, Brno, 61242, Czech Republic
                [9 ] 9​J. Craig Venter Institute, 9714 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
                [10 ] 10​J. Craig Venter Institute, 4120 Capricorn Lane, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
                [11 ] 11​Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
                [12 ] 12​Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 601 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
                [13 ] 13​Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
                [14 ] 14​Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1350 Pleasant Street, Boulder, CO 80309-0233, USA
                [15 ] 15​Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, 1364 Eckles Aneue, St Paul, MN 55108-6118, USA
                © 2018


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