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      A consensus-based template for uniform reporting of data from pre-hospital advanced airway management

      research-article
      1 , 2 , , 3 , 1 , 4 , Pre-hospital advanced airway management expert group
      Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          Advanced airway management is a critical intervention that can harm the patient if performed poorly. The available literature on this subject is rich, but it is difficult to interpret due to a huge variability and poor definitions. Several initiatives from large organisations concerned with airway management have recently propagated the need for guidelines and standards in pre-hospital airway management. Following the path of other initiatives to establish templates for uniform data reporting, like the many Utstein-style templates, we initiated and carried out a structured consensus process with international experts to establish a set of core data points to be documented and reported in cases of advanced pre-hospital airway management.

          Methods

          A four-step modified nominal group technique process was employed.

          Results

          The inclusion criterion for the template was defined as any patient for whom the insertion of an advanced airway device or ventilation was attempted. The data points were divided into three groups based on their relationship to the intervention, including system-, patient-, and post-intervention variables, and the expert group agreed on a total of 23 core data points. Additionally, the group defined 19 optional variables for which a consensus could not be achieved or the data were considered as valuable but not essential.

          Conclusion

          We successfully developed an Utstein-style template for documenting and reporting pre-hospital airway management. The core dataset for this template should be included in future studies on pre-hospital airway management to produce comparable data across systems and patient populations and will be implemented in systems that are influenced by the expert panel.

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          Most cited references50

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          A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study.

          To develop and validate a new Simplified Acute Physiology Score, the SAPS II, from a large sample of surgical and medical patients, and to provide a method to convert the score to a probability of hospital mortality. The SAPS II and the probability of hospital mortality were developed and validated using data from consecutive admissions to 137 adult medical and/or surgical intensive care units in 12 countries. The 13,152 patients were randomly divided into developmental (65%) and validation (35%) samples. Patients younger than 18 years, burn patients, coronary care patients, and cardiac surgery patients were excluded. Vital status at hospital discharge. The SAPS II includes only 17 variables: 12 physiology variables, age, type of admission (scheduled surgical, unscheduled surgical, or medical), and three underlying disease variables (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, metastatic cancer, and hematologic malignancy). Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that the model performed well in the developmental sample and validated well in an independent sample of patients (P = .883 and P = .104 in the developmental and validation samples, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.88 in the developmental sample and 0.86 in the validation sample. The SAPS II, based on a large international sample of patients, provides an estimate of the risk of death without having to specify a primary diagnosis. This is a starting point for future evaluation of the efficiency of intensive care units.
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            Misplaced endotracheal tubes by paramedics in an urban emergency medical services system.

            To determine the incidence of unrecognized, misplaced endotracheal tubes inserted by paramedics in a large urban, decentralized emergency medical services (EMS) system. We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients intubated in the field by paramedics before emergency department arrival. During an 8-month period, emergency physicians assessed tube position at ED arrival using a combination of auscultation, end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO(2)) monitoring, and direct laryngoscopy. A total of 108 intubated patients were studied. On arrival in the ED, 25% (27/108) of patients were found to have improperly placed endotracheal tubes. Of the misplaced tubes, 67% (18/27) were found to be in the esophagus, whereas in 33% (9/27), the tip of the tube was found to be in the hypopharynx, above the vocal cords. Of the patients with misplaced tubes noted in the hypopharynx, 33% (3/9) died while in the ED. For the patients found to have tubes in the hypopharynx, 56% (5/9) had evidence of ETCO(2) on ED arrival. For the patients found to have esophageal tube placement on ED arrival, 56% (10/18) died in the ED. Esophageal intubation was associated with an absence of expired CO(2) (17/18, 94%) on ED arrival. The single patient in this subset with a recordable ETCO(2) had been nasotracheally intubated with the tip of the endotracheal tube noted in the esophagus while spontaneous respirations were present. On patient arrival to the ED, 63% (68/108) of the patients had direct laryngoscopy in addition to ETCO(2) determination. All patients had ETCO(2) evaluation performed on arrival. All patients in whom an absence of ETCO(2) was demonstrated on patient arrival underwent direct laryngoscopy. In cases in which direct laryngoscopy was not performed, the attending physician documented the ETCO(2) in conjunction with the presence of bilateral breath sounds. The incidence of out-of-hospital, unrecognized, misplaced endotracheal tubes in our community is excessively high and may be reflective of the incidence occurring in other communities. Data from other communities are needed to clarify the scope of this alarming issue.
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              International EMS Systems: the Nordic countries.

              Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system. Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health enterprises to re-establish a nation-wide air ambulance service; (5) Sweden: to create evidence based medicine standards for treatment in emergency medicine, a better integration of all part of the chain of survival, a formalised education in EM and a nation wide physician staffed helicopter EMS (HEMS) cover.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
                Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1757-7241
                2009
                20 November 2009
                : 17
                : 58
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Research and Development, Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation, Drøbak, Norway
                [2 ]Air Ambulance Department, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
                [3 ]London HEMS, The Royal London Hospital, London, UK
                [4 ]Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Bergen, Norway
                Article
                1757-7241-17-58
                10.1186/1757-7241-17-58
                2785748
                19925688
                3583a853-655d-4c8a-968e-1ef3fe98ef7e
                Copyright ©2009 Sollid et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Emergency medicine & Trauma
                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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